International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

, Volume 64, Issue 6, pp 425–430

Effects of smoking and drinking on excretion of hippuric acid among toluene-exposed workers


  • Osamu Inoue
    • Tohoku Rosai Hospital
  • Kazunori Seiji
    • Tohoku Rosai Hospital
  • Takao Watanabe
    • Miyagi University of Education
  • Haruo Nakatsuka
    • Department of Environmental SciencesTohoku University School of Medicine
  • Chui Jin
    • Chinese Academy of Preventive MedicineInstitute of Occupational Medicine
  • Shi-Jie Liu
    • Beijing Medical University School of Public Health
  • Masayuki Ikeda
    • Department of Public HealthKyoto University Faculty of Medicine
Original articles

DOI: 10.1007/BF00517948

Cite this article as:
Inoue, O., Seiji, K., Watanabe, T. et al. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath (1993) 64: 425. doi:10.1007/BF00517948


In order to investigate possible effects of smoking and drinking on the metabolism of toluence in occupational settings, 206 toluene-exposed men (mean age: 31.4 years) in shoemaking, painting, or surface-coating workshops together with 246 nonexposed control men (36.8 years) were studied for the time-weighted average intensities of exposure to toluene, hippuric acid concentration in shift-end urine samples, and the two social habits of smoking and drinking. The mean daily consumptions of cigarettes and ethanol were about 20 pieces and 10 g among smokers and drinkers, respectively. The geometric mean toluene concentration among the exposed subjects was about 20 ppm, with a maximum of 521 ppm. Regression analysis after classification of the subjects by smoking and drinking clearly demonstrated that the two social habits, when combined, markedly reduce the hippuric acid level in the urine of workers exposed to was a significant association between smoking and drinking habits, which hindered separate evaluation of the effects of the two habits on toluene metabolism. Comparison of the present results with the findings reported in the literature, however, suggested that the observed effects may be attributable to smoking rather than to drinking habits.

Key words

Biological monitoringDrinkingHippuric acidSmokingTolueneUrinalysis

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993