The resistance to carbon dioxide of some food related bacteria

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The growth inhibitory effect of 100% carbon dioxide (CO2) at 25° C was evaluated on Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Brochothrix thermosphact ATCC 11509, Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 19404, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Lactobacillus sp. (homofermentative), Lactobacillus viridescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Yersinia frederiksenii. The organisms were studied in batch cultures and the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was determined in air, 5% CO2 + nitrogen and 100% CO2; from which the relative inhibitory effect of CO2 was estimated for each organism. Using 100% CO2 reduced the growth rate for all test organisms. Compared to growth in air, the relative inhibitory effect of 100% CO2 was highest for Bac. cereus, Br. thermosphacta and A. hydrophila (> 75%), and lowest for E. coli, Str. faecalis and the Lactobacillus spp. (53%–29%). Compared to anaerobic growth, the relative inhibitory effect of 100% CO2 was generally somewhat lower and the succession of CO2-resistance was slightly altered for some organisms but drastically increased for Br. thermosphacta. The relative inhibitory effect was highest on Bac. cereus, A. hydrophila and Y. frederiksenii (67%–52%) and lowest on Y. enterocolitica, Br. thermosphacta and the Lactobacillus spp. (26%–8%). The anaerobic growth in nitrogen was generally slower than the aerobic growth. The exceptions were Streptococcus faecalis (only 2% reduction) and Clostridium sporogenes (no aerobic growth). In 100% CO2 Str. faecalis, Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli had highest μmax and Brochothrix thermosphacta, Bacillius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus the lowest.