Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans Article DOI:
10.1007/BF00489606 Cite this article as: DeGrazia, D. & Rowan, A. Theor Med Bioeth (1991) 12: 193. doi:10.1007/BF00489606 Abstract
We attempt to bring the concepts of pain, suffering, and anxiety into sufficient focus to make them serviceable for empirical investigation. The common-sense view that many animals experience these phenomena is supported by empirical and philosophical arguments. We conclude, first, that pain, suffering, and anxiety are different conceptually and as phenomena, and should not be conflated. Second, suffering can be the result — or perhaps take the form — of a variety of states including pain, anxiety, fear, and boredom. Third, pain and nociception are not equivalent and should be carefully distinguished. Fourth, nociception can explain the behavior of insects and perhaps other invertebrates (except possibly the cephalopods). Fifth, a behavioral inhibition system associated with anxiety in humans seems to be present in mammals and most or all other vertebrates. Based on neurochemical and behavioral evidence, it seems parsimonious to claim that these animals are capable of experiencing anxious states.
Key words animal anxiety nociception pain suffering References
. New York: New York Review, 1975.
. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
Bateson P. The assessment of pain in animals.
Animal Behavior (in press).
Pitcher G. The awfulness of pain.
Journal of Philosophy
Measurement of Subjective Responses
. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Wall PD. On the relation of injury to pain.
The Puzzle of Pain
. London: Penguin Press, 1973.
Fiorito G. Is there pain in invertebrates?
Alumets J, Hakanson R, Sundler F, Thorell J. Neuronal localisation of immunoreactive enkephalin and b-endorphin in the earthworm.
Eisemann CH, Jorgensen WK, Merrit, DJ, et al. Do insects feel pain? A biological view.
Davis K. What's wrong with pain anyway?
Animals Agenda 1989:50–1.
Thrush DC. Congenital insensitivity to pain: a clinical, genetic, and neurophysiological study of four children from the same family.
Kitchen H, Aronson AL, Bittle JL, et al. Panel report on the colloquium on recognition and alleviation of animal pain and distress.
. London: Chapman and Hall, 1978.
Brain L. Animals and pain.
United States Department of Agriculture. Animals and animal products.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9. USDA, ch. 1, sec. 113 99 (C) 4 (1979).
Cassano GB. What is pathological anxiety and what is not. In: Costa E, ed.
The Benzodiazepines: From Molecular Biology to Clinical Practice
. New York: Raven Press, 1983:287–93.
Childhood and Society
. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1950.
An Introduction of Comparative Psychology
. London: Walter Scott, 1894.
Ninan PT, Insel TM, Cohen RM, Cook JM, Skolnick P, Paul SK. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated experimental anxiety in primates.
The Neuropsychology of Anxiety
. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Richards JG, Mohler H. Benzodiazepine receptors.
File SE. The search for novel anxiolytics.
Trends of the Neurosciences
Dorow R, Horowshi R, Paschelke G, Amin M, Braestrup C. Severe anxiety induced by FG7142; a beta-carboline ligand for benzodiazepine receptors.
Reese WG. A dog model for human psychopathology.
Am J Psychiatry
Nielsen M, Braestrup C, Squires RF. Evidence for a late evolutionary appearance of a brain-specific benzodiazepine receptor.
Gay JA. Precis of Gray's “The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system”.
Behavioral Brain Science
The Principles of Morals and Legislation
. [1789 reprint]. New York: Hafner, 1948.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991