Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We attempt to bring the concepts of pain, suffering, and anxiety into sufficient focus to make them serviceable for empirical investigation. The common-sense view that many animals experience these phenomena is supported by empirical and philosophical arguments. We conclude, first, that pain, suffering, and anxiety are different conceptually and as phenomena, and should not be conflated. Second, suffering can be the result — or perhaps take the form — of a variety of states including pain, anxiety, fear, and boredom. Third, pain and nociception are not equivalent and should be carefully distinguished. Fourth, nociception can explain the behavior of insects and perhaps other invertebrates (except possibly the cephalopods). Fifth, a behavioral inhibition system associated with anxiety in humans seems to be present in mammals and most or all other vertebrates. Based on neurochemical and behavioral evidence, it seems parsimonious to claim that these animals are capable of experiencing anxious states.
- Singer P. Animal Liberation. New York: New York Review, 1975.
- Wittgenstein L. Philosophical Investigations. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
- Bateson P. The assessment of pain in animals. Animal Behavior (in press).
- Pitcher G. The awfulness of pain. Journal of Philosophy 1970;68:481–92.
- Beecher HK. Measurement of Subjective Responses. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959.
- Wall PD. On the relation of injury to pain. Pain 1979;6:253–64.
- Melzack R. The Puzzle of Pain. London: Penguin Press, 1973.
- Fiorito G. Is there pain in invertebrates? Behavioral Processes 1986;12:383–6.
- Alumets J, Hakanson R, Sundler F, Thorell J. Neuronal localisation of immunoreactive enkephalin and b-endorphin in the earthworm. Nature 1979;279:805–6.
- Eisemann CH, Jorgensen WK, Merrit, DJ, et al. Do insects feel pain? A biological view. Experientia 1984;40:164–7.
- Davis K. What's wrong with pain anyway? Animals Agenda 1989:50–1.
- Thrush DC. Congenital insensitivity to pain: a clinical, genetic, and neurophysiological study of four children from the same family. Brain 1973;96:369–86.
- Kitchen H, Aronson AL, Bittle JL, et al. Panel report on the colloquium on recognition and alleviation of animal pain and distress. JAMA 1987;191:1186–91.
- Wells MJ. Octopus. London: Chapman and Hall, 1978.
- Brain L. Animals and pain. New Science 1963;19:380–1.
- United States Department of Agriculture. Animals and animal products. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9. USDA, ch. 1, sec. 113 99 (C) 4 (1979).
- Cassano GB. What is pathological anxiety and what is not. In: Costa E, ed. The Benzodiazepines: From Molecular Biology to Clinical Practice. New York: Raven Press, 1983:287–93.
- Erickson E. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1950.
- Morgan LL. An Introduction of Comparative Psychology. London: Walter Scott, 1894.
- Ninan PT, Insel TM, Cohen RM, Cook JM, Skolnick P, Paul SK. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated experimental anxiety in primates. Science 1983;218:1332–4.
- Gray JA. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
- Richards JG, Mohler H. Benzodiazepine receptors. Neuropharmacology 1984;23:233–42.
- File SE. The search for novel anxiolytics. Trends of the Neurosciences 1987;10:461–3.
- Dorow R, Horowshi R, Paschelke G, Amin M, Braestrup C. Severe anxiety induced by FG7142; a beta-carboline ligand for benzodiazepine receptors. Lancet 1983;2:98–9.
- Reese WG. A dog model for human psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry 1979;138:1168–72.
- Nielsen M, Braestrup C, Squires RF. Evidence for a late evolutionary appearance of a brain-specific benzodiazepine receptor. Brain Res 1978;141:342–6.
- Gay JA. Precis of Gray's “The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system”. Behavioral Brain Science 1982;5:469–534.
- Bentham J. The Principles of Morals and Legislation. [1789 reprint]. New York: Hafner, 1948.
- Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans
Volume 12, Issue 3 , pp 193-211
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links