, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 3–26

Knowledge, context, and social standards

  • Stewart Cohen

DOI: 10.1007/BF00485440

Cite this article as:
Cohen, S. Synthese (1987) 73: 3. doi:10.1007/BF00485440


This paper defends the view that standards, which are typically social in nature, play a role in determining whether a subject has knowledge. While the argument focuses on standards that pertain to reasoning, I also consider whether there are similar standards for memory and perception.

Ultimately, I argue that the standards are context sensitive and, as such, we must view attributions of knowledge as indexical. I exploit similarities between this view and a version of the relevant alternatives reply to skepticism in order to defend this reply against the objection that it is ad hoc.

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stewart Cohen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA