Estimation of S and NOx-N deposition budgets for the United States and Canada
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Extensive wet deposition monitoring data, along with much sparser dry deposition monitoring data and isolated field characterizations of droplet deposition, are used to produce an annual deposition budget for S and NOx-N for each contiguous U.S. state and Canadian province. The contribution to wet deposition from natural sources is estimated, and wet deposition is adjusted accordingly, to focus the analysis on deposition associated with anthropogenic emissions. The budgets, which are appropriate for 1985–1987, include adjustments for increased local wet and dry deposition near point sources and urban areas, which are generally avoided in selecting monitoring sites. When aggregated over the United States and Canada, estimated wet, dry, and droplet deposition account for about 30, 29, and 4% of anthropogenic S emissions, respectively, implying that 37% is exported. For NOx-N, estimated wet, dry, and droplet deposition account for 30, 43, and 4% of anthropogenic emissions, with 23% exported. Results are in general agreement with a variety of other observational analyses and regional modeling simulations, particularly for eastern North America, and are consistent with estimates of net horizontal mass fluxes of S and NOx-N across the Atlantic coast of North America.
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- Estimation of S and NOx-N deposition budgets for the United States and Canada
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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