, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 1–8

Pharmacological characterization of tardive dyskinesia

  • Daniel E. Casey
  • Duane Denney
Original Investigations

DOI: 10.1007/BF00426532

Cite this article as:
Casey, D.E. & Denney, D. Psychopharmacology (1977) 54: 1. doi:10.1007/BF00426532


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) may be a clinical manifestation of a relative imbalance between the inversely related dopaminergic (DA) and acetylcholinergic (ACh) influences in the central nervous system (CNS). Six patients were evaluated with single challenge doses of a DA agonist, levodopa, and antagonist, droperidol, as well as with an ACh agonist, physostigmine, an antagonist, benztropine, and a placebo. A single blind trial with deanol and placebo followed. Responses, measured by an electrophysiological technique, formed two subgroups. The patients who improved with a DA antagonist or an ACh agonist improved while taking deanol. Another group of patients were made worse with a DA antagonist or ACh agonist and were worsened or had no response while taking deanol. While the results add support to the concept of counterbalancing DA-ACh influences in TD, further investigation of TD subtypes and predictors of drug response is warranted.

Key words

Tardive dyskinesia Dopamine Acetylcholine Levodopa Droperidol Physostigmine Benztropine Deanol 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel E. Casey
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Duane Denney
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Administration HospitalBrown UniversityProvidenceU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Medical ResearchVeterans Administration HospitalPortlandU.S.A.
  3. 3.University of Oregon Health Sciences CenterPortlandU.S.A.
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Oregon Health Sciences CenterPortlandU.S.A.
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryVeterans Administration HospitalPorlandU.S.A.

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