World Health Organization. Constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: Author (Basic Documents), 1947.
Hall JA, Epstein A, McNeil BJ. Multidimensionality of health status in an elderly population: construct validity of a measurement battery. Med Care 1989; 27: S168-S177.
Hays RD, Stewart AL. The structure of self-reported health in chronic disease patients. Psych Assessment 1990; 2: 22–30.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951; 16: 297–334.
Feldt LS, Woodruff DJ, Salih FA. Statistical inference for coefficient alpha. Appl Psych Measurement 1987; 11: 93–103.
Deyo RA, Diehr P, Patrick DL. Reproducibility and responsiveness of health status measures: statistics and strategies for evaluation. Contr Clin Trials 1991; 12: 142S-158S.
Shrout PE, Fleiss JL. Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater relability. Psych Bull 1979; 86: 420–428.
Bravo G, Potvin L. Estimating the reliability of continuous measures with Cronbach's alpha or the intraclass correlation coefficient: toward the integration of two traditions. J Clin Epid 1991; 44: 381–390.
Nunnally J. Psychometric Theory 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 473–483.
Hays RD, Sherbourne CD, Mazel RM. the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Health Economics
Prisant LM, Carr AA, Bottini PB, et al. Repeatability of automated ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Journal of Family Practice 1992; 34: 569–574.
Stewart AL, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, et al. Summary and discussion of MOS measures. In: AL Stewart, JE Ware, eds. Measuring Functioning and Well-being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992: 345–371.
Hays RD, Hayashi T. Beyond internal consistency reliability: rationale and user's guide for Multitrait Scaling Analysis Program on the microcomputer. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers 1990; 22: 167–175.
Hays RD, Wang E. Multitrait scaling program: MULTI. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual SAS Users Group International Conference, 1992: 1151–1156.
Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware J. Methods of validating MOS health measures. In: AL Stewart, JE Ware eds. Measuring Functioning and Well-being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992: 309–324.
Cronbach LJ, Meehl PE. Construct validity in psychological tests. Psych Bull 1995; 52: 281–302.
Campbell DT, Fiske DW. Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psych Bull 1959; 56: 81–105.
Hayashi T, Hays RD. A microcomputer program for analyzing multitrait-multimethod matrices. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 1987; 19: 345–348.
Kenny DA, Kashy DA. Analysis of the multitrait-multimethod matrix by confirmatory factor analysis. Psych Bull 1992; 112: 165–172.
Nelson EC, Landgraf JM, Hays RD, et al. The functional status of patients: How can it be measured in physicians' offices? Med Care 1990; 28: 1111–1126.
Siu AL, Hays RD, Ouslander JG, et al. Measuring functioning and health in the very old. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 1993; 48: M10-M14.
Hadorn DC, Hays RD. Multitrait-multimethod analysis of health-related quality of life preferences. Med Care 1991; 29: 829–840.
Cole DA. Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. J Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1987; 55: 584–594.
Marsh HW. Confirmatory factor analyses of multitrait-multimethod data: Many problems and a few solutions. Appl Psych Measurement 1989 13: 335–361.
Siu AL, Ouslander JG, Osterweil D, et al. Change in self-reported functioning in older persons entering a residential care facility. J Clin Epid
Liang MH, Larson MG, Cullen KE, et al. Comparative measurement efficiency and sensitivity of five health status instruments for arthritis research. Arthr Rheum 1985; 28: 545–547.
Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology 1982; 143: 29–36.
Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology 1983; 148: 839–843.
Guyatt G, Walter S, Norman G. Measuring change overtime: Assessing the usefulness of evaluative instruments. J Chron Dis 1987; 40: 171–178.
Hays R, Hadorn D. Responsiveness to change: an aspect of validity, not a separate dimension. Quality of Life Research 1992; 1: 73–75.
Chambers LW, Haight M, Norman G, et al. Sensitivity to change and the effect of mode of administration on health status measurement. Med Care 1987; 25: 470–480.
MacKenzie CR, Charlson ME, DiGioia D, et al. Can the Sickness impact Profile measure change? An example of scale assessment. J Chron Dis 1986; 39: 429–438.
Kazis LE, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF. Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status. Med Care 1989: 27: S178-S189.
Guyatt G, Walter S, Norman G. Measuring change over time: assessing the usefulness of evaluative instruments. J Chron Dis 1987; 40: 171–178.
Revicki DA, Turner R, Brown R, et al. Reliability and validity of a health-related quality of life battery for evaluating outpatient antidepressant treatment. Quality of Life Research 1992; 1: 257–266.
Hui C, Triandis HC. Measurement in cross-cultural psychology: a review and comparison of strategies. Cross Cultural Psychology 1985; 16: 131–152.
Brislin R, Lonner W, Thorndike R. Cross Cultural Research Methods. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1973.
Hunt S. Cross-cultural issues in the use of sociomedical indicators. Health Policy 1986; 6: 149–158.
Patrick D, Sittampalam Y, Sommerville S, et al. A cross-cultural comparison of health status values AJPH 1985; 75: 1402–1407.
Cattell B. Comparing factor traits across ages and cultures. J Gerontol 1989; 24: 348–380.
Buss AR, Royce JR. Detecting cross-cultural commonalties and differences: intergroup factor analysis. Psych Bull 1975; 82: 128–136.
Dressler W, Viteri F, Chavez A, et al. Comparative research in social, epidemiology: measurement issues. Ethnicity Dis 1991; 1: 379–393.
Bucquet D, Condor S, Ritchie K. The French version of the Nottingham Health Profile: a comparison of item weights with those of the source version. Soc Sci Med 1990; 30: 829–835.
Mangione CM, Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, et al. Influence of age on measurement of health status in patients undergoing elective surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 377–383.
Jenkinson C, Coulter A, Wright L. Short Form 36 (SF 36) Health Survey Questionnaire: normative data for adults of working age. Br Med J 1993; 306: 1437–1440.
Vickrey BG, Hays RD, Rausch R, et al. Quality of life of epilepsy surgery patients compared with out-patients with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and/or depressive symptoms. Submitted for publication.
Wells KB, Manning MG, Valdez RB. The effects of insurance generosity on the psychological distress and well-being of a general population: results from a randomized trial of insurance. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, R-3682-NIMH/HCFA.
Revicki DA, Allen H, Bungay K, et al. Responsiveness and calibration of the general well-being adjustment scale in patients with hypertension. Submitted for publication.
Testa MA, Anderson RB, Nackley JF, et al. Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men: a comparison of captopril and enalapril. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 907–913.
Detsky AS, nagle IG. A clinician's guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990; 113: 147–154.
Froberg DG, Kane RL. Methodology for measuring health-state preferences—III: Population and context effects. J Clin Epid 1989; 42: 585–592.
Hornberger JC, Redelmeier DA, Petersen J. Variability among methods to assess patients' well-being and consequent effect on a cost-effectiveness analysis. J Clin Epid 1992; 45: 505–512.
Bozzette SA, Hays RD, Berry S, et al. A perceived health index for use in persons with advanced HIV disease: derivation, reliability, and validity. Submitted for publication.
Hays RD, Stewart AL, Sherbourne CD, et al. The ‘states versus weights’ dilemma in quality of life measurement. Qual Life Res 1993; 2: 167–168.