Quality of Life Research

, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp 397–432

A critical review of dimension-specific measures of health-related quality of life in cross-cultural research


  • M. J. Naughton
    • Department of Public Health SciencesBowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Medical Center Boulevard
  • I. Wiklund
    • Department of Behavioural MedicineAstra Hassle AB
    • Ostra Hospital
Review Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF00422216

Cite this article as:
Naughton, M.J. & Wiklund, I. Qual Life Res (1993) 2: 397. doi:10.1007/BF00422216


This article reviews six dimension-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures which have been used cross-culturally. The instruments reviewed are: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ); the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression (CES-D); the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). These instruments primarily represent the psychological or emotional dimension of HRQL, and are scales that were developed and validated in the USA, Canada or the UK. The review of specific studies for each of the six instruments was not meant to be exhaustive, but rather to give an indication of the ways in which the instruments have been assessed or used in various countries. The focus throughout this article is on the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of these scales in different cultures, as well as the processes used to translate the instruments from English into another language. Implications of the results of this review for cross-cultural use of dimension-specific HRQL instruments are drawn.

Key words

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression (CES-D)cross-culturalGeneral Health Questionnaire (GHQ)health-related quality of lifeMcGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB)psychometricsZung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1993