Social Indicators Research

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 263–274

Happiness of the very wealthy

  • Ed Diener
  • Jeff Horwitz
  • Robert A. Emmons

DOI: 10.1007/BF00415126

Cite this article as:
Diener, E., Horwitz, J. & Emmons, R.A. Social Indicators Research (1985) 16: 263. doi:10.1007/BF00415126


The subjective well-being of very wealthy persons was compared with that of a control group who lived in the same geographical area. One hundred persons from Forbes list of wealthiest Americans were queried, as well as 100 control persons selected from telephone directories. The 49 wealthy respondents reported average levels of subjective well-being which were higher than the 62 control group respondents and any subgroup of respondents in a national sample. However, there were unhappy wealthy people and the average level of this group was only modestly higher than for other groups. None of the respondents believed that money is a major source of happiness. When the major sources of happiness mentioned by the two groups were coded for Maslow's needs, it was found that the wealthy group more often mentioned self-esteem and self-actualization and less frequently mentioned physiological and security needs.

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ed Diener
    • 1
  • Jeff Horwitz
  • Robert A. Emmons
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA