, Volume 133, Issue 3, pp 195-201

Fermentation of trihydroxybenzenes by Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov., a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacterium

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Abstract

Five strains of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-sporing, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated from limnic and marine mud samples with gallic acid or phloroglucinol as sole substrate. All strains grew in defined mineral media without any growth factors; marine isolates required salt concentrations higher than 1% for growth, two freshwater strains only thrived in freshwater medium. Gallic acid, pyrogallol, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid, and phloroglucinol were the only substrates utilized and were fermented stoichiometrically to 3 mol acetate (and 1 mol CO2) per mol with a growth yield of 10g cell dry weight per mol of substrate. Neither sulfate, sulfur, nor nitrate were reduced. The DNA base ratio was 51.8% guanine plus cytosine. A marine isolate, Ma Gal 2, is described as type strain of a new genus and species, Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov., in the family Bacteroidaceae. In coculture with Acetobacterium woodii, the new isolates converted also syringic acid completely to acetate. Cocultures with Methanosarcina barkeri converted the respective substrates completely to methane and carbon dioxide.