, Volume 134, Issue 4, pp 286-294

Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids

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Gliding motility, ultrastructure and nutrition of two newly isolated filamentous sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains 5ac10 and 4be13, were investigated. The filaments were always attached to surfaces. Growth was supported by addition of insoluble aluminium phosphate or agar as substrata for gliding movement. Electron microscopy of ultrathin sections revealed cell walls characteristic of Gramnegative bacteria; the undulated structure of the outer membrane may pertain to the translocation mechanism. Intracytoplasmic membranes were present. Acetate, higher fatty acids, succinate or fumarate served as electron donors and carbon sources. Strain 5ac10 grew also with lactate, but not with benzoate that was used only by strain 4be13. Strain 5ac10 was able to grow slowly on H2 plus CO2 or formate in the presence of sulfate without additional organic carbon source. The capacity of complete oxidation was shown by stoichiometric measurements with acetate plus sulfate. Both strains contained b- and c-type cytochromes. Desulfoviridin was detected only in strain 5ac10. The two filamentous gliding sulfate reducers are described as new species of a new genus, Desulfonema limicola and Desulfonema magnum.