Effects of imipramine on anxiety and hostility levels
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
An initial longitudinal study of the psychologic effects of imipramine on one patient in which the active drug was alternated with a placebo, led to short term studies on four other subjects. A measure of emotional reaction was used which was derived from small samples of speech; it was demonstrated to be an objective and sensitive instrument for the detection of changes in anxiety and hostility.
While imipramine was consistently associated with an increase in the expression of hostility directed outward for the one patient, the increase in hostility outwards for four additional patients was not sufficiently great to reject, with conviction, the hypothesis of chance. However, these four other patients did show a significant increase in a subcategory of hostility directed outward, namely, overt hostility outward.
Imipramine, as compared to a placebo, significantly increased levels of anxiety in the verbal samples of the subjects tested.
No significant changes were noted with imipramine on scores of hostility directed inwards or ambivalently directed hostility, probably because none of these patients was clinically depressed.
- Akimoto, H., M. Natatuk, and Y. Machiyama: Clinical experience with MAO inhibitors. Dis. nerv. Syst. 21, 645–648 (1960).
- Azima, H., and R. H. Vispo: Effects of imipramine (Tofranil) on depressive states: A clinical and psychodynamic study. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 81, 658–664 (1959).
- Blair, D.: Treatment of severe depression by imipramine (Tofranil): An investigation of 100 cases. J. ment. Sci. 106, 891–905 (1960).
- Chassan, J. B.: Stochastic models of the single case in clinical research design. Behav. Sci. 6, 42–50 (1961).
- Chassan, J. B., and L. Bellak: An introduction to intensive design in the evaluation of drug efficacy in psychotherapy. In: Methods of Research in Psychotherapy. Gottschalk, L. A., and A. H. Auerbach (eds.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1965.
- Gleser, G. C., L. A. Gottschalk, and K. J. Springer: An anxiety scale applicable to verbal samples. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 5, 593–605 (1961).
- - - and R. Fox: Immediate changes in anxiety and hostility with chlordiazepoxide administration in juvenile delinquent boys. (In preparation) (1965).
- Gottschalk, L. A., F. T. Kapp, W. D. Ross, S. M. Kaplan, H. Silver, J. H. MacLeod, J. B. Kahn, E. F. Van Maanen and G. H. Acheson: Explorations in testing drugs affecting physical and mental activity. J. Amer. med. Ass. 161, 1054–1058 (1956).
- —, G. C. Gleser, R. A. Daniels, and S. C. Block: The speech patterns of schizophrenic patients: A method of assessing relative degree of personal disorganization and social alienation. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 127, 153–166 (1958a).
- —, and S. M. Kaplan: A quantitative method of estimating variations in intensity of a psychologic conflict or state. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 79, 688–696 (1958b).
- —, G. C. Gleser, K. J. Springer, S. Kaplan, J. Shanon, and W. D. Ross: The effects of perphenazine on verbal behavior: A contribution to the problem of measuring the psychologic effect of psychoactive drugs. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 2, 632–639 (1960).
- —, K. J. Springer, and G. C. Gleser: Experiments with a method of assessing the variations in intensity of certain psychological states occurring during two psychotherapeutic interviews. In: Comparative Psycholinguistic Analysis of Two Psychotherapeutic Interviews. Edited by Gottschalk, L. A. New York: International Universities Press 1961a.
- —, G. C. Gleser, E. B. Magliocco, and T. D'Zmura: Further studies on the speech patterns of schizophrenic patients: Measuring inter-individual differences. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 132, 101–113 (1961b).
- — —, and K. J. Springer: Three hostility scales applicable to verbal samples. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 9, 254–279 (1963).
- — —, T. D'Zmura, and I. B. Hanenson: Some psychophysiological relationships in hypertensive women: The effect of hydrochlorothiazide on the relation of affect to blood pressure. Psychosom. Med. 26, 610–617 (1964a).
- — —, Distinguishing characteristics of the verbal communications of schizophrenic patients. Proceedings of the Assn. for Research in Nerv. and Ment. Dis. on Disorders of Communication. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co. 1964b.
- Lehmann, H. E.: New drugs in psychiatric therapy. Canad. med. Ass. J. 85, 1145–1151 (1961).
- Pollack, B.: Clinical findings in the case of Tofranil in depressive and other psychiatric states. Amer. J. Psychiat. 116, 312–317 (1959).
- Ross, W. D., N. Adsett, G. C. Gleser, C. R. B. Joyce, S. M. Kaplan, and M. E. Tieger: A trial of psychopharmacologic measurement with projective techniques. J. project. techn. 27, 222–225 (1963).
- Ruskin, D., and R. D. Goldner: Treatment of depressions in private practice with imipramine. Dis. nerv. Syst. 20, 391–399 (1959).
- Whitman, R. M., M. Pierce, J. W. Maas, and B. Baldridge: Drugs and dreamsII: Imipramine and prochlorperazine. Comprehens. Psychiat. 2, 219–226 (1961).
- Effects of imipramine on anxiety and hostility levels
Volume 7, Issue 4 , pp 303-310
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Psychosomatic Service, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, the Cincinnati General Hospital, USA
- 2. Cincinnati Veterans Administration, and the Mental Health Study Center NIMH, Adelphi, Maryland