, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 224-230

First online:

Towards continuous glucose monitoring: in vivo evaluation of a miniaturized glucose sensor implanted for several days in rat subcutaneous tissue

  • D. Moatti-SiratAffiliated withService de Diabétologie, INSERM U 341
  • , F. CapronAffiliated withService de Diabétologie, INSERM U 341
  • , V. PoitoutAffiliated withService de Diabétologie, INSERM U 341
  • , G. ReachAffiliated withService de Diabétologie, INSERM U 341
  • , D. S. BindraAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of Kansas
  • , Y. ZhangAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of Kansas
  • , G. S. WilsonAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of Kansas
  • , D. R. ThévenotAffiliated withLABAM, University Paris Val de Marne

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A miniaturized amperometric, enzymatic, glucose sensor (outer diameter 0.45 mm) was evaluated after implantation in the subcutaneous tissue of normal rats. A simple experimental procedure was designed for the long-term assessment of the sensor's function which was performed by recording the current during an intraperitoneal glucose load. The sensor was calibrated by accounting for the increase in the current during the concomitant increase in plasma glucose concentration, determined in blood sampled at the tail vein. This made it possible to estimate the glucose concentration in subcutaneous tissue. During the glucose load, the change in subcutaneous glucose concentration followed that in blood with a lag time consistently shorter than 5 min. The estimations of subcutaneous glucose concentration during these tests were compared to the concomitant plasma glucose concentrations by using a grid analysis. Three days after implantation (n=6 experiments), 79 estimations were considered accurate, except for five which were in the acceptable zone. Ten days after implantation (n=5 experiments), 101 estimations were accurate, except for one value, which was still acceptable. The sensitivity was around 0.5 nA mmol−1·l−1 on day 3 and day 10. A longitudinal study on seven sensors tested on different days demonstrated a relative stability of the sensor's sensitivity. Finally, histological examination of the zone around the implantation site revealed a fibrotic reaction containing neocapillaries, which could explain the fast response of the sensor to glucose observed in vivo, even on day 10. We conclude that this miniaturized glucose sensor, whose size makes it easily implanted, works for at least ten days after implantation into rat subcutaneous tissue.

Key words

Glucose sensor subcutaneous tissue