Diabetologia

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 70–76

Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Finland — background of a nationwide study of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

  • J. Tuomilehto
  • R. Lounamaa
  • E. Tuomilehto-Wolf
  • A. Reunanen
  • E. Virtala
  • E. A. Kaprio
  • H. K. Åkerblom
  • L. Toivanen
  • A. Fagerlund
  • M. Flittner
  • B. Gustafsson
  • A. Hakulinen
  • L. Herva
  • P. Hiltunen
  • T. Huhtamäki
  • N. -P. Huttunen
  • T. Huupponen
  • M. Hyttinen
  • C. Häggqvist
  • T. Joki
  • R. Jokisalo
  • S. Kallio
  • U. Kaski
  • M. Knip
  • M. -L. Käär
  • L. Laine
  • J. Lappalainen
  • J. Mäenpää
  • A. -L. Mäkelä
  • K. Niemi
  • A. Niiranen
  • A. Nuuja
  • P. Ojajärvi
  • T. Otonkoski
  • K. Pihlajamäki
  • S. Pöntynen
  • J. Ranjantie
  • J. Sankala
  • J. Schumacher
  • M. Sillanpää
  • C. -H. Stråhlmann
  • M. -R. Ståhlberg
  • T. Uotila
  • P. Varimo
  • G. Wetterstrand
  • M. Väre
  • A. Aro
  • H. Hurme
  • H. Hyöty
  • J. Ilonen
  • J. Karjalainen
  • R. LaPorte
  • P. Leinikki
  • A. Miettinen
  • L. Räsänen
  • E. Savilahti
  • S. M. Virtanen
Originals

DOI: 10.1007/BF00400854

Cite this article as:
Tuomilehto, J., Lounamaa, R., Tuomilehto-Wolf, E. et al. Diabetologia (1992) 35: 70. doi:10.1007/BF00400854

Summary

A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of Type 1 diabetes. From September 1986 to April 1989, 801 families with a newly-diagnosed child aged 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. The vast majority of the families agreed to participate in the comprehensive investigations of the study. HLA genotypes and haplotypes were determined in 757 families (95%). Our study also incorporates a prospective family study among non-diabetic siblings aged 3–19 years, and two case-control studies among the youngonset cases of Type 1 diabetes. During 1987–1989, the overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes was about 35.2 per 100,000 per year. It was higher in boys (38.4) than in girls (32.2). There was no clear geographic variation in incidence among the 12 provinces of Finland. Of the 1,014 cases during these 3 years only six cases were diagnosed before their first birthday. The incidence was high already in the age group 1–4-years old: 33.2 in boys and 29.5 in girls. Of the 801 families 90 (11.2%) were multiple case families, of which 66 had a parent with Type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis of the proband. The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in the parents of these newly-diagnosed diabetic children was higher in fathers (5.7%) than in mothers (2.6%).

Key words

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitusepidemiologygenetic-environmental interactionincidencefamilial occurrence

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Tuomilehto
    • 1
  • R. Lounamaa
    • 1
  • E. Tuomilehto-Wolf
    • 1
  • A. Reunanen
    • 2
  • E. Virtala
    • 1
  • E. A. Kaprio
    • 3
  • H. K. Åkerblom
    • 4
  • L. Toivanen
  • A. Fagerlund
  • M. Flittner
  • B. Gustafsson
  • A. Hakulinen
  • L. Herva
  • P. Hiltunen
  • T. Huhtamäki
  • N. -P. Huttunen
  • T. Huupponen
  • M. Hyttinen
  • C. Häggqvist
  • T. Joki
  • R. Jokisalo
  • S. Kallio
  • U. Kaski
  • M. Knip
  • M. -L. Käär
  • L. Laine
  • J. Lappalainen
  • J. Mäenpää
  • A. -L. Mäkelä
  • K. Niemi
  • A. Niiranen
  • A. Nuuja
  • P. Ojajärvi
  • T. Otonkoski
  • K. Pihlajamäki
  • S. Pöntynen
  • J. Ranjantie
  • J. Sankala
  • J. Schumacher
  • M. Sillanpää
  • C. -H. Stråhlmann
  • M. -R. Ståhlberg
  • T. Uotila
  • P. Varimo
  • G. Wetterstrand
  • M. Väre
  • A. Aro
    • 5
  • H. Hurme
    • 6
  • H. Hyöty
    • 7
  • J. Ilonen
    • 8
  • J. Karjalainen
    • 9
  • R. LaPorte
    • 11
  • P. Leinikki
    • 12
  • A. Miettinen
    • 13
  • L. Räsänen
    • 14
  • E. Savilahti
    • 16
  • S. M. Virtanen
    • 18
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyNational Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Research Institute for Social Security, Social Insurance InstitutionHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.First Department of PaediatricsHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Second Department of PaediatricsThe Children's Hospital, University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.National Public Health InstituteHelsinki
  6. 6.Pedagogic Faculty in VaasaÅbo AkademiFinland
  7. 7.Institute of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of TampereFinland
  8. 8.National Public Health InstituteOulu
  9. 9.Department of PediatricsUniversity of OuluFinland
  10. 10.Department of PediatricsUniversity of OuluFinland
  11. 11.Diabetes Research Center of Children's Hospital of PittsburghUSA
  12. 12.National Public Health InstituteHelsinki
  13. 13.Department of Bacteriology and ImmunologyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  14. 14.Department of NutritionUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  15. 15.Social Insurance InstituteHelsinki
  16. 16.Children's HospitalUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  17. 17.National Public Health InstituteHelsinki
  18. 18.Department of NutritionUniversity of HelsinkiFinland