, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 660-663

The risk of foot ulceration in diabetic patients with high foot pressure: a prospective study

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Summary

Foot ulceration results in substantial morbidity amongst diabetic patients. We have studied prospectively the relationship between high foot pressures and foot ulceration using an optical pedobarograph. A series of 86 diabetic patients, mean age 53.3 (range 17–77) years, mean duration of diabetes 17.1 (range 1–36) years, were followed-up for a mean period of 30 (range 15–34) months. Clinical neuropathy was present in 58 (67%) patients at baseline examination. Mean peak foot pressure was higher at the follow-up compared to baseline (13.5 kg·cm−2±7.1 SD vs 11.2±5.4, p<0.001) with abnormally high foot pressures (>12.3) being present in 55 patients at follow-up and 43 at the baseline visit (p=NS). Plantar foot ulcers developed in 21 feet of 15 patients (17%), all of whom had abnormally high pressures at baseline; neuropathy was present in 14 patients at baseline. Non-plantar ulcers occurred in 8 (9%) patients. Thus, plantar ulceration occurred in 35% of diabetic patients with high foot pressures but in none of those with normal pressures. We have shown for the first time in a prospective study that high plantar foot pressures in diabetic patients are strongly predictive of subsequent plantar ulceration, especially in the presence of neuropathy.