, Volume 34, Issue 12, pp 877–890

UK prospective diabetes study (UKPDS)

VIII. Study design, progress and performance


  • UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group
    • Radcliffe Infirmary
    • Royal Infirmary
    • General Hospital
    • St George's Hospital and Hammersmith Hospital
    • City Hospital
    • North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary
    • Royal Victoria Hospital
    • St. Helier Hospital
    • Whittington Hospital
    • Norfolk and Norwich Hospital
    • Lister Hospital
    • Ipswich Hospital
    • Ninewells Hospital
    • Northampton Hospital
    • Torbay Hospital, Peterborough General Hospital
    • Scarborough Hospital
    • Derbyshire Royal Infirmary
    • Manchester Royal Infirmary
    • Hope Hospital
    • Leicester General Hospital
    • Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital

DOI: 10.1007/BF00400195

Cite this article as:
UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group Diabetologia (1991) 34: 877. doi:10.1007/BF00400195


The UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, intervention trial of 5100 newly-diagnosed patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus which aims to determine whether improved blood glucose control will prevent complications and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. Newly presenting Type 2 diabetic patients aged 25–65 years inclusive, median age 53 years, median body mass index 28 kg/m2 and median fasting plasma glucose 11.3 mmol/l, were recruited and treated initially by diet. Ninety five percent remained hyperglycaemic (fasting plasma glucose > 6 mmol/l) and were randomly allocated to different therapies. In the main randomisation, those who were asymptomatic and had fasting plasma glucose under 15 mmol/l were allocated either to diet policy, or to active policy with either insulin or sulphonylurea aiming to reduce the fasting plasma glucose to under 6 mmol/l. Over 3 years, the median fasting plasma glucose in those allocated to diet policy was 8.9 mmol/l compared with 7.0 mmol/l in those allocated to active policy. The Hypertension in Diabetes Study has been included in a factorial design to assess whether improved blood pressure control will be advantageous. Patients with blood pressure ≥ 160/90 mm Hg were randomly allocated to tight control aiming for < 150/85 mm Hg with either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a Beta-blocker or to less tight control aiming for < 200/105 mm Hg. The endpoints of the studies are major clinical events which affect the life and well-being of patients, such as heart attacks, angina, strokes, amputations, blindness and renal failure. To date, 728 patients have had at least one clinical endpoint. Surrogate endpoints include indices of macrovascular and microvascular disease detected by ECG with Minnesota Coding, retinal colour photography and microalbuminuria. The studies also aim to evaluate potential risk factors for the development of diabetic complications such as smoking, obesity, central adiposity, plasma LDL-and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, urate and other biochemical variables. The studies are planned to terminate in 1994, with a median follow-up of 9 years (range 3–16 years) for the glucose study and 5 years (range 2–6 years) for the hypertension study.

Key words

Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitushypertensioncomplicationsclinical trialglycaemic controlblood pressure control

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991