, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 300-307

Effect on insulin sensitivity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors with or without a sulphydryl group: Bradykinin may improve insulin resistance in dogs and humans

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Summary

The present study compared the effect on insulin sensitivity of ACE inhibitors with a sulphydryl group (captopril) or those without a sulphydryl group (delapril and enalapril) during the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp test in both animal and clinical experiments. A possible contribution of bradykinin to the improvement of insulin sensitivity by ACE-inhibition was also studied. In healthy control and depancreatized dog experiments, administration of captopril either intravenously (3.0 mmol · kg−1) or orally (5.0 mmol · kg−1) increased insulin sensitivity indices and plasma bradykinin concentrations. In comparison, intravenous administration of an active metabolite of delapril (3.0 mmol · kg−1) and oral administration of either delapril or enalapril (5.0 mmol · kg−1) showed slight, but not significant increases in insulin sensitivity indices and plasma bradykinin concentrations. Infusion of a bradykinin antagonist (N-α-adamantaneacetyl-d-Arg-[Hyp3, Thi5,8,d-Phe7]-bradykinin) (0.5 nmol · kg−1 · min−1) abolished the effect of captopril on insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, intravenous administration of bradykinin (0.1 nmol · kg−1 · min−1) increased insulin sensitivity indices. In clinical experiments, insulin sensitivity indices decreased in the following order: normotensive healthy subjects, hypertensive non-diabetic patients, normotensive NIDDM patients and hypertensive NIDDM patients. In these four groups, oral administration of captopril (2.0 mmol · kg−1) significantly increased insulin sensitivity indices, and a concomitant increase in plasma bradykinin concentrations was observed. By contrast, oral administration of enalapril or delapril showed slight, but not significant effects on insulin sensitivity indices and plasma bradykinin concentrations. From these studies, it is concluded that ACE inhibitors with a sulphydryl group have more potent action on the improvement in insulin sensitivity than those without a sulphydryl group. Bradykinin may also possibly be involved in the mechanism underlying the improvement in insulin sensitivity associated with ACE-inhibition.