Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.
- BelisleA. A., ReichelW. L., LockeL., LamontT. G., MulhernB. M., ProutyR. M., DeWolfR. B., and CromartieE.: 1972, ‘Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Mercury and Autopsy Data for Bald Eagles, 1969 and 1970’, Pestic. Mont. J. 6, 133–138.
- CromartieE., ReichelW. L., LockeL. N., BelisleA. A., KaiserT. E., LamontT. E., MulhernB. M., ProutyR. M., and SwinefordD. M.: 1975, ‘Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Autopsy Data for Bald Eagles, 1971–72’, Pestic. Monit. J. 9, 11–14.
- Dunstan, T. C.: 1974, ‘The Status and Role of Bald Eagle Winter Studies in the Midwest’, in T. N. Ingram (ed.), Our Eagles Future: Proceedings of Bald Eagle Days, Eagle Valley Environ., Apple River, Ill., pp. 62–67.
- HaseltineS. D., HeinzG. H., ReichelW. L., and MooreJ. F.: 1981, ‘Organochlorine and Metal Residues in Eggs of Waterfowl Nesting on Islands in Lake Michigan off Door County, Wisconsin, 1977–1978’, Pestic. Monit. J. 15, 90–97.
- KaiserT. E., ReichelW. L., LockeL. N., CromartieE., KrynitskyA. J., LamontT. G., MulhernB. M., ProutyR. M., StaffordC. J., and SwinefordD. M.: 1980, ‘Organochlorine Pesticide, PCB, and PBB Residues and Necropsy Data for Bald Eagles from 29 States-1975–77’, Pestic. Monit. J. 13, 145–149.
- MulhernB. M., ReichelW. L., LockeL. N., LamontT. G., BelisleA. A., CromartieE., BagleyG. E., and ProutyR. M.: 1970, ‘Organochlorine Residues and Autopsy Data from Bald Eagles, 1966–68’, Pestic. Mont. J. 4, 141–144.
- PatteeO. H., WiemeyerS. N., MulhernB. M., SileoL., and CarpenterJ. W.: 1981, ‘Experimental Lead-shot Poisoning in Bald Eagles’, J. Wildl. Manage. 45, 806–810.
- ProutyR. M., ReichelW. L., LockeL. N., BelisleA. A., CromartieE., KaiserT. E., LamontT. G., MulhernB. M., and SwinefordD. M.: 1977, ‘Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Autopsy Data for Bald Eagles, 1973–74’, Pestic. Monit. J. 11, 134–137.
- ReichelW. L., CromartieE., LamontT. G., MulhernB. M., and ProutyR. M.: 1969, ‘Pesticide Residues in Eagles’, Pestic. Monit. J. 3, 142–144.
- Schmeling, S. K. and Docherty, D.: 1982, ‘Fatal Avian Pox in Bald Eagles from Alaska’, in W. N. Ladd and P. F. Schempf (eds.), Proceedings of Symposium and Workshop in Raptor Management and Biology in Alaska and Western Canada, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serivce, Alaska Regional Office, FWS/AK/PROC-82, pp. 255–262.
- SpencerD. A.: 1976, Wintering of the Migrant Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States, National Agricultural Chemicals Association, Washington, D.C., 170 pp.
- StickelW. H., StickelL. F., and SpannJ. W.: 1969, ‘Tissue Residues of Dieldrin in Relation to Mortality in Birds and Mammals’, in M. W.Miller and G. C.Berg (eds.), Chemical Fallout: Current Research on Persitent Pesticides, Chas. C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., pp. 174–204.
- Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume 4, Issue 4 , pp 395-403
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive, 20708, Laurel, MD, USA