Article

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 395-403

First online:

Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81

  • W. L. ReichelAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , S. K. SchmelingAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , E. CromartieAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , T. E. KaiserAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , A. J. KrynitskyAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , T. G. LamontAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , B. M. MulhernAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , R. M. ProutyAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
  • , C. J. StaffordAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive
    • , D. M. SwinefordAffiliated withPatuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serive

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.