Tagetitoxin affects plastid development in seedling leaves of wheat Article Received: 02 October 1984 Accepted: 11 March 1985 DOI:
Cite this article as: Lukens, J.H. & Durbin, R.D. Planta (1985) 165: 311. doi:10.1007/BF00392227 Abstract
Ultrastructural and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the mode of action of tagetitoxin, a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Hellmers) Young, Dye and Wilkie, which causes chlorosis in developing — but not mature — leaves. Tagetitoxin has no effect on the growth rate or morphology of developing leaves of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Its cytological effects are limited to plastid aberrations; in both light-and dark-grown leaves treated with toxin, internal plastid membranes fail to develop normally and plastid ribosomes are absent, whereas mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ribosomes are unaffected. The activity of a plastid stromal enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase, EC 188.8.131.52), which is co-coded by nuclear and chloroplast genes, is markedly lower in extracts of both light-and dark-grown toxin-treated leaves, whereas the activity of another stromal enzyme, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP-G-3P-DH, EC 184.108.40.206), which is coded only by the nuclear genome, is significantly lower in extracts of light-grown, but not of dark-grown, treated leaves. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase (EC 220.127.116.11) and cytochrome- c oxidase (EC 18.104.22.168) are unaffected by toxin in dark-grown leaves, but fumarase activity is reduced in light-grown ones. Four peroxisomal enzyme activities are lowered by toxin treatment in both light- and dark-grown leaves. Light- and dark-grown, toxintreated leaves contain about 50% and 75%, respectively, of the total protein of untreated leaves. There are threefold and twofold increases in free amino acids in light-grown and dark-grown treated leaves, respectively. In general, the effects of tagetitoxin are more extensive and exaggerated in light-grown than in dark-grown leaves. We conclude that tagetitoxin interferes primarily with a light-independent aspect of chloroplast-specific metabolism which is important in plastid biogenesis. Key words Chloroplast development Chloroplast ribosomes Etioplast (prolamellar body) Pseudomonas (toxin) Tagetitoxin Triticum (chloroplast development) Abbreviations NADP-G-3-DH
shikimic acid dehydrogenase
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