, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 342-350

Evolutionary conservation of fragile sites induced by 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine in man, gorilla, and chimpanzee

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Lymphocyte cultures from man, gorilla, and chimpanzee were treated with 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine. These cytidine analogues induce common fragile sites in the chromosome bands 1q42 and 19q13 of man. A rare fragile site is induced by 5-azadeoxycytidine in the band 1q24. The optimum conditions required for inducing these new fragile sites were determined by a series of experiments. The common fragile site in human chromosome 1q42 also exists in the gorilla and chimpanzee in the homologous band 1q32. The fragile site in human chromosome 19q13 was demonstrated in the gorilla in the homologous chromosome band 20q13. These are the first examples found of evolutionary highly conserved fragile sites in homologous chromosome bands in related primate species. The interaction between 5-azacytidine, 5-azadeoxycytidine, and chromosomal DNA; the evolutionary conservation of genes located within or closely adjacent to the fragile sites in the chromosome 1 of Hominoidea; and the phylogenetic origin of the two new common fragile sites are discussed.