, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 93–103

Orthmodular lattices whose MacNeille completions are not orthomodular

  • John Harding

DOI: 10.1007/BF00385817

Cite this article as:
Harding, J. Order (1991) 8: 93. doi:10.1007/BF00385817


The only known example of an orthomodular lattice (abbreviated: OML) whose MacNeille completion is not an OML has been noted independently by several authors, see Adams [1], and is based on a theorem of Ameniya and Araki [2]. This theorem states that for an inner product space V, if we consider the ortholattice ℒ(V,⊥) = {A\( \subseteq \)V: A = A⊥⊥} where A is the set of elements orthogonal to A, then ℒ(V,⊥) is an OML if and only if V is complete. Taking the orthomodular lattice L of finite or confinite dimensional subspaces of an incomplete inner product space V, the ortholattice ℒ(V,⊥) is a MacNeille completion of L which is not orthomodular. This does not answer the longstanding question Can every OML be embedded into a complete OML? as L can be embedded into the complete OML ℒ(V,⊥), where V is the completion of the inner product space V.

Although the power of the Ameniya-Araki theorem makes the preceding example elegant to present, the ability to picture the situation is lost. In this paper, I present a simpler method to construct OMLs whose Macneille completions are not orthomodular. No use is made of the Ameniya-Araki theorem. Instead, this method is based on a construction introduced by Kalmbach [7] in which the Boolean algebras generated by the chains of a lattice are glued together to form an OML. A simple method to complete these OMLs is also given.

The final section of this paper briefly covers some elementary properties of the Kalmbach construction. I have included this section because I feel that this construction may be quite useful for many purposes and virtually no literature has been written on it.

AMS subject classifications (1991)


Key words

Boolean algebra generated by a chaindispersion free statesMacNeille completionortholatticeorthomodular lattice

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Harding
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada