Two mitochondrial genomes of Coprinus cinereus, H and J, were found to have alternative 1.23 kb insertions. Using the Neurospora crassa cytochrome oxidase-1 (co-1) gene as a probe, the “J” insertion site was shown to be located within the Coprinus co-1 gene, whereas the “H” insertion was some 2 kb distant. The insertions showed biased inheritance following mitochondrial genome recombination. Recombination between H and J genomes was detected using the mitochondrial gene mutations acu-10, which causes a cytochrome oxidase defect, and cap-1, which confers chloramphenicol resistance. Fourteen of fifteen independently derived recombinants for these two genes were shown to have both DNA insertions. In a second series of H x J crosses, intragenic recombination between different cap-1 alleles was detected. These mutations are assumed to be in the large ribosomal RNA gene some 6 kb distant from the nearest insertion site. Each of eight independently derived cap-1+ recombinants had both DNA insertions. Despite their similar size and similar behaviour following recombination the insertions do not share extensive sequence homology.