, Volume 163, Issue 2, pp 138-142

Proline betaine is a highly effective osmoprotectant for Staphylococcus aureus

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Proline betaine is an osmoprotectant that is at least as effective as glycine betaine, and more effective than L-proline, for various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 13C NMR studies revealed that proline betaine accumulated to high levels in osmotically stressed S. aureus, but was also detected in organisms grown in its presence in the absence of osmotic stress. Competition experiments indicated that proline betaine was taken up by the proline transport systems of S. aureus, but not by the high affinity glycine betaine transport system.