The plurennial life cycles of the European Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera)
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- Ingrisch, S. Oecologia (1986) 70: 606. doi:10.1007/BF00379913
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The effect of temperature on embryonic development, voltinism, and hatching was studied in the laboratory in eggs of 21 Central and Southeastern European Tettigoniidae species. In most species, the embryo has to arrive at a postkatatrepsis stage prior to the onset of cold to be able to hatch in the following spring. The rate of embryonic development differs: quickly developing species need 4 weeks at 24°C (prior to cold) and almost all eggs hatch after the first cold treatment, slowly developing species would need 8–12 weeks to do the same. In Central Europe, warmth is not enough for the slowly developing species to have an univoltine life cycle, but they could have it in southern Europe. Most species make use of a dormancy sequence to pass successive winters as follows: an initial embryonic dormancy (either quiscence or diapause in embryonic stage 4) and a final diapause in embryonic stage 23/24. Additionally, 3 forms of aestivation or summer dormancy were observed facultatively: an initial diapause in embryonic stage 4 (induced and terminated at 30°C), a median dormancy shortly before or after katatrepsis (at 30°C), and a penultimate diapause in embryonic stage 20 (at 24°C).
annual life cycle (no initial embryonic dormancy);
annual or biennial depending on whether laid early or late;
biennial or many year life cycle (up to 8 years due to a prolonged initial diapause).