, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 502–507

The significance of pollination time and frequency and of purity of pollen loads for seed set in Rhinanthus angustifolius (Scrophulariaceae) and Viscaria vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae)

  • Manja M. Kwak
  • Ola Jennersten
Original Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF00379895

Cite this article as:
Kwak, M.M. & Jennersten, O. Oecologia (1986) 70: 502. doi:10.1007/BF00379895


The effects of time of the day and frequency of application and of purity of artificially deposited pollen loads on fruiting and seed set were studied in Rhinanthus angustifolius (diurnally visited by bumblebees) and Viscaria vulgaris (diurnally visited by bumblebees, nocturnally by sphingid moths).

Time of the day did not influence pollination success in either species. Increase of pollination frequency increased fruiting and seed set in Rhinanthus but had no affect on Viscaria. Five successive artificial pollinations were needed to achieve seed set equal to that observed naturally in Rhinanthus while a single artificial pollination was sufficient in Viscaria. Mixing Lupinus and Viscaria pollen did not reduce fruiting and seed set in Viscaria. The results are discussed in relation to observed seed sets in early and late flowers, and small and large patches of Viscaria vulgaris and among Rhinanthus flowers in populations of different densities.

Key words


Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manja M. Kwak
    • 1
  • Ola Jennersten
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Ecology, Biological CentreState University of GroningenHaren (Gn)The Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden