, Volume 101, Issue 2, pp 245-259

Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

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Abstract

Evolution of the magma chamber at Mount Mazama involved repeated recharge by two types of andesite (high-Sr and low-Sr), crystal fractionation, crystal accumulation, assimilation, and magma mixing (Bacon and Druitt 1988). This paper addresses the modal compositions, textures, mineral chemistry and magmatic temperatures of (i) products of the 6845±50 BP climactic eruption, (ii) blocks of partially fused granitoid wallrock found in the ejecta, and (iii) preclimactic rhyodacitic lavas leaked from the chamber in late Pleistocene and early Holocene time. Immediately prior to the climactic eruption the chamber contained ≳ 40 km3 of rhyodacite (10 vol% plag + opx + aug + hb + mt + ilm, ∼880° C) overlying high-Sr andesite and cumulus-crystal mush (28–51 vol% plag + hb ± opx ± aug + mt ± ilm, 880° to ≥950° C), which in turn overlay low-Sr crystal mush (50–66 vol% plag + opx + aug ± hb ± ol + mt + ilm, 890° to ≥950† C). Despite the well known compositional gap in the ejecta, no thermal discontinuity existed in the chamber. Pre-eruptive water contents of pore liquids in most high-Sr and low-Sr mushes were 4–6 wt%, but on average the high-Sr mushes were slightly richer in water. Although parental magmas of the crystal mushes were andesitic, xenocrysts of bytownite and Ni-rich magnesian olivine in some scoriae record the one-time injection of basalt into the chamber. Textures in ol-bearing scoriae preserve evidence for the reactions ol + liq = opx and ol + aug + liq(+ plag?) = hb, which occurred in andesitic liquids at Mount Mazama. Strontium abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts constrain the petrogenesis of preclimactic and climactic rhyodacites. Phenocryst cores derived from high-Sr and low-Sr magmas have different Sr contents which can be resolved by microprobe. Partition coefficients for plagioclase in andesitic to rhyolitic glasses range from 2 to 7, and increase as glass %SiO2 increases. Evolved Pleistocene rhyodacites (∼30–25,000 BP) and rhyodacites of the Holocene Llao Rock center (7015±45 BP) contain Sr-poor plagioclase and are derivatives from low-Sr magma. Rhyodacites of the Pleistocene Sharp Peak domes, Holocene Cleetwood flow (∼6850 BP), and climactic ejecta contain discrete Sr-rich and Sr-poor plagioclase phenocryst populations and are hybrids produced by mixing low-Sr rhyodacite (containing Sr-poor plag + opx + aug) with a more mafic high-Sr magma (with Sr-rich plag [ + hb?]). The data reinforce the conclusions of crystal-liquid mixing calculations (Bacon and Druitt 1988), and suggest some important refinements to the magma chamber model.