, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 90-109

Geochemistry of intrusive rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field, New Mexico, and contrasts between evolution of plutonic and volcanic rocks

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Abstract

Plutonic rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field comprise three groups: 1) ∼25 Ma high-level resurgent plutons composed of monzogranite and silicic metaluminous and peralkaline granite, 2) 23–25 Ma syenogranite, and alkali-feldspar granite intrusions emplaced along the southern caldera margin, and 3) 19–23 Ma granodiorite and granite plutons emplaced south of the caldera. Major-element compositions of both extrusive and intrusive suites in the Latir field are broadly similar; both suites include high-SiO2 rocks with low Ba and Sr, and high Rb, Nb, Th, and U contents. Moreover, both intermediateto siliciccomposition volcanic and plutonic rocks contain abundant accessory sphene and apatite, rich in rare-earth elements (REE), as well as phases in which REE's are essential components. Strong depletion in Y and REE contents, with increasing SiO2 content, in the plutonic rocks indicate a major role for accessory mineral fractionation that is not observed in volcanic rocks of equivalent composition. Considerations of the rheology of granitic magma suggest that accessory-mineral fractionation may occur primarily by filter-pressing evolved magmas from crystal-rich melts. More limited accessory-mineral crystallization and fractionation during evolution of the volcanic magmas may have resulted from markedly lower diffusivities of essential trace elements than major elements. Accessory-mineral fractionation probably becomes most significant at high crystallinities. The contrast in crystallization environments postulated for the extrusive and intrusive rocks may be common to other magmatic systems; the effects are particularly pronounced in highly evolved rocks of the Latir field. High-SiO2 peralkaline porphyry emplaced during resurgence of the Questa caldera represents non-erupted portions of the magma that produced the Amalia Tuff during caldera-forming eruption. The peralkaline porphyry continues compositional and mineralogical trends found in the tuff. Amphibole, mica, and sphene compositions suggest that the peralkaline magma evolved from metaluminous magma. Extensive feldspar fractionation occurred during evolution of the peralkaline magmas, but additional alkali and iron enrichment was likely a result of high halogen fluxes from crystallizing plutons and basaltic magmas at depth.