The toxicity of heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica
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- Calabrese, A., Collier, R.S., Nelson, D.A. et al. Marine Biology (1973) 18: 162. doi:10.1007/BF00367984
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The acute toxicity of 11 heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica was studied and the concentrations at which 50% of the embryos did not develop were determined. The most toxic metals and their LC50 values were mercury (0.0056 ppm), silver (0.0058 ppm), copper (0.103 ppm) and zinc (0.31 ppm). Those metals that were not as toxic and their LC50 values were nickel (1.18 ppm), lead (2.45 ppm) and cadmium (3.80 ppm). Those metals that were relatively non-toxic and their LC50 values were arsenic (7.5 ppm), chromium (10.3 ppm) and manganese (16.0 ppm). Aluminum was non-toxic at 7.5 ppm, the highest concentration tested.