Two types of donkey sentences
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Mandarin Chinese exhibits two paradigms of conditionals with indefinite wh-words that have the semantics of donkey sentences, represented by ‘bare conditionals’ on the one hand and ruguo- and dou-conditionals on the other. The bare conditionals require multiple occurrences of wh-words, disallowing the use of overt or covert anaphoric elements in the consequent clause, whereas the ruguo- and dou-conditionals present a completely opposite pattern. We argue that the bare conditionals are cases of unselective binding par excellence (Heim 1982, Kamp 1981) while the ruguo- and dou-conditionals are most naturally accounted for with the traditional E-type pronoun strategy of Evans (1980). We thus argue partly for a return to the E-type strategy (along with Heim 1990) but maintain the need for unselective binding in UG (cf. Kratzer 1989, Chierchia 1992). It is further shown that these two paradigms do not differ with respect to the proportion problem and the distribution of symmetric and asymmetric readings of Kadmon (1987), though they differ with respect to ∀ and ∃ readings (discussed in Chierchia 1992) in a non-trivial way that provides further support for the proposed approach. Finally, evidence is given that the bare conditionals should be kept apart from correlative constructions in languages like Hindi, and treated differently from the latter.
- Aoun, Joseph and Audrey Li: 1993, ‘Wh-Elements in Situ: Syntax or LF?’, Linguistic Inquiry 24, 199–238.
- Berman, Stephen: 1987, ‘Situation-based Semantics for Adverbs of Quantification’, in University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers 12, pp. 45–68.
- Chao, Wynn and Peter Sells: 1983, ‘On the Interpretation of Resumptive Pronouns’, in P. Sells and C. Jones (eds.), Proceedings of NELS 13, GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 47–61.
- Cheng, Lisa L.-S.: 1991, On the Typology of Wh-Questions, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
- Cheng, Lisa L.-S.: 1995, ‘On Dou-quantification’, Journal of East Asian Linguistics 4(3), 197–234.
- Chierchia, Gennaro: 1992, ‘Anaphora and Dynamic Binding’, Linguistics and Philosophy 15, 111–183.
- Chomsky, Noam: 1976, ‘Conditions on Rules of Grammar’, Linguistic Analysis 2(4), 303–351.
- Cole, Peter: 1987, ‘The Structure of Internally Headed Relative Clauses’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 5, 277–302.
- Cooper, Robin: 1979, ‘The Interpretation of Pronouns’, Syntax and Semantics 10, 61–92.
- Diesing, Molly: 1992, Indefinites, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Engdahl, Elisabet: 1986, Constituent Questions, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
- Evans, Gareth: 1980, ‘Pronouns’, Linguistic Inquiry 11(2), 337–362.
- von Fintel, Kai: 1994, Restrictions on Quantifier Domains, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Hamblin, C. L.: 1973, ‘Questions in Montague English’, Foundations of Language 10, 41–53.
- Heim, Irene: 1982, The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Heim, Irene: 1990, ‘E-type Pronouns and Donkey Anaphora’, Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 137–178.
- Higginbotham, James: 1980a, ‘Pronouns and Bound Variables’, Linguistic Inquiry 11, 679–708.
- Higginbotham, James: 1980b, ‘Anaphora and GB: Some Preliminary Remarks’, in J. Jensen (ed.), Proceedings of NELS 9, pp. 223–236.
- Higginbotham, James: 1985, ‘On Semantics’, Linguistic Inquiry 16(4), 547–593.
- Huang, C.-T. James: 1982, Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
- Huang, C.-T. James: 1984, ‘On the Distribution and Reference of Empty Pronouns’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 531–574.
- Huang, C.-T. James: 1987, ‘Existential Sentences in Chinese and (In)definiteness’, in E. J. Reuland and A. G. B. ter Meulen (eds.), The Representation of (In)definiteness, pp. 226–253. MIT Press.
- Ito, Junko: 1986, ‘Head-Movement at LF and PF’ in University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 11, pp. 109–138.
- Kadmon, Nirit: 1987, On Unique and Non-Unique Reference and Asymmetric Quantification, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Kadmon, Nirit: 1990, ‘Uniqueness’, Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 273–324.
- Kamp, Hans: 1981, ‘A Theory of Truth and Semantic Representation’ in J. Groenendijk, T. Janssen, and M. Stokhof (eds.), Formal Methods in the Study of Language, Mathematical Centre Tracts, Amsterdam, pp. 277–322.
- Karttunen, Lauri: 1977, ‘Syntax and Semantics of Questions’, Linguistics and Philosophy 1, 3–44.
- Koopman, Hilda and Dominique, Sportiche: 1982, ‘Variables and the Bijection Principle’, The Linguistics Review 2, 139–160.
- Kratzer, Angelika: 1986, ‘Conditionals’, Chicago Linguistic Society 22(2), 1–15.
- Kratzer, Angelika: 1989, ‘Individual-level vs. Stage-level Predicates’, in E. Bach, A. Kratzer, and B. Partee (eds.), Papers on Quantification, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Lahiri, Utpal: 1991, Embedded Interrogatives and Predicates That Embed Them, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
- Lewis, David: 1975, ‘Adverbs of Quantification’, in E. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Li, Xiao-guang: 1994, ‘Dou as Event Quantifier’, ms., University of California, Irvine.
- Li, Y.-H. Audrey: 1992, ‘Indefinite Wh in Mandarin Chinese’, Journal of East Asian Linguistics 1(2), 125–156.
- Lü, Shu-Xiang: 1980, Xiandai Hanyu Babai Ci (Eight Hundred Words in Modern Chinese), Commercial Press, Beijing.
- Montalbetti, Mario M.: 1984, After Binding, On the Interpretation of Pronouns, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
- Neale, Stephen: 1991, Descriptions, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Nishigauchi, Taisuke: 1990, Quantification in the Theory of Grammar, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
- Parsons, Terry: 1978, ‘Pronouns as Paraphrases’, ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Pelletier, Francis J. and Lenhart, K. Schubert: 1989, ‘Generically Speaking, or Using Discourse Representation Theory to Interpret Generics’, in G. Chierchia, B. H. Partee, and R. Turner (eds.), Properties, Types and Meaning, vol. 2, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
- Pesetsky, David: 1987, ‘Wh-in situ: Movement and Unselective Binding’, in E. J. Reuland and A. G. B. ter Meulen (eds.), The Representation of (In)definiteness, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Platero, Paul: 1978, Missing Noun Phrases in Navajo, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
- Safir, Ken: 1985, Syntactic Chains, Cambridge University Press.
- Sells, Peter: 1984, Syntax and Semantics of Resumptive Pronouns, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
- Srivastav, Veneeta: 1991, ‘The Syntax and Semantics of Correlatives’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9, 637–686.
- Tsai, Wei-Tien: 1994, ‘To Move or Not to Move, That Is the Question’, paper presented in Theoretical East Asian Linguistics Workshop, UC Irvine, January 1994.
- Yu, Xi-Liang: 1965, ‘Yiwen daici de renzhi yongfa’ (On the “wh-ever” use of interrogative pronouns), Zhongguo Yuwen 1, 30–35.
- Zaefferer, Dietmar: 1990, ‘Conditionals and Unconditionals in Universal Grammar and Situation Semantics’, in R. Cooper, K. Mukai, and J. Perry (eds.), Situation Theory and Applications 1, CSLI, Stanford, pp. 471–492.
- Two types of donkey sentences
Natural Language Semantics
Volume 4, Issue 2 , pp 121-163
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links