, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 123–132

Hooks for mammal pollination?

  • F. Lynn Carpenter

DOI: 10.1007/BF00344725

Cite this article as:
Lynn Carpenter, F. Oecologia (1978) 35: 123. doi:10.1007/BF00344725


Two species of Banksia (family Proteaceae) studied in Australia were shown to be pollinated by small, non-flying mammals rather than by birds as previously thought, and to possess several adaptations appropriate for mammal-rather than bird-pollination: odor, troughs that channel excess nectar to the ground for attraction, open inflorescence structure for nectar accessibility, hooked wiry styles for effective pollen transfer, crepuscular and nocturnal nectar and pollen presentation, and copious nectar. This apparently is the first documentation with quantified data of pollination by non-flying mammals, although many other probable examples exist.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Lynn Carpenter
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA