A new hypothesis for the organization of synapses between neurons is proposed: “The synapse from neuron x to neuron y is reinforced when x fires provided that no neuron in the vicinity of y is firing stronger than y”. By introducing this hypothesis, a new algorithm with which a multilayered neural network is effectively organized can be deduced. A self-organizing multilayered neural network, which is named “cognitron”, is constructed following this algorithm, and is simulated on a digital computer. Unlike the organization of a usual brain models such as a three-layered perceptron, the self-organization of a cognitron progresses favorably without having a “teacher” which instructs in all particulars how the individual cells respond. After repetitive presentations of several stimulus patterns, the cognitron is self-organized in such a way that the receptive fields of the cells become relatively larger in a deeper layer. Each cell in the final layer integrates the information from whole parts of the first layer and selectively responds to a specific stimulus pattern or a feature.