A DNA probe, E9, which has been used extensively in population genetic studies of the barley powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, was shown to be homologous to dispersed sequences in the genome of this fungus. In a cross of the isolates CC52 and DH14, fragments with homology to E9 mapped to six clusters of loci. Avirulences matching five resistance genes in barley were controlled by single genes, in accordance with the gene-for-gene hypothesis, while avirulence matching a sixth resistance gene, Mla13, was controlled by two genes. A gene which controls the response to a fungicide, ethirimol, was not linked to any other gene. In all, seven linkage groups, comprising 22 loci, were detected. The results indicate that E9 can be used to identify members of a clone of E.g. f.sp. hordei, but should not be used for quantitative population genetic analysis.