Cognitive functioning and anxiety
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Various possible differences in cognitive functioning between those high and low in trait anxiety are considered. Particular emphasis is paid to the hypothesis that individuals high in trait anxiety tend to approach threatening stimuli, whereas those low in trait anxiety tend to avoid such stimuli. The evidence indicates that there are such differences in the processing of threatening stimuli as a function of trait anxiety. However, these differences are found only under certain conditions, for example, when threatening and nonthreatening stimuli are presented concurrently, and when minor rather than major threat is involved.
The differences between those high and low in trait anxiety encompass pre-attentive, attentional, and interpretative mechanisms. As a consequence, any adequate theory of trait anxiety must take proper account of cognitive mechanisms and functioning.
- Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation, Vol. 8. London: Academic Press.
- Bitterman, M. E., & Kniffin, C. W. (1953). Manifest anxiety and “perceptual defense”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48, 248–252.
- Blaylock, B. A. H. (1963). Repression-sensitization, word association responses, and incidental recall. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
- Butler, G., & Mathews, A. (1983). Cognitive processes in anxiety. Advances in Behavior Research & Therapy, 5, 51–62.
- Byrne, D. (1964). Repression-sensitization as a dimension of personality. In B. A. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research. New York: Academic Press.
- Carroll, D. (1972). Repression-sensitization and duration of visual attention. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34, 949–950.
- Deffenbacher, J. L. (1978). Worry, emotionality, and task-generated interference in test anxiety: An empirical test of attentional theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 248–254.
- Dixon, N. F. (1981). Preconscious processing. Chichester: Wiley.
- Dornic, S., & Fernaeus, S.-E. (1981). Individual differences in high-load tasks: The effect of verbal distraction (Rep. No. 569). Stockholm: Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm.
- Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences. New York: Plenum Press.
- Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning, and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 363–385.
- Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal: Cognition and performance. Berlin: Springer.
- Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck's theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality. Berlin: Springer.
- Greenbaum, M. (1956). Manifest anxiety and tachistoscopic recognition of facial photographs. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 6, 245–248.
- Haney, J. N. (1973). Approach-avoidance reactions by repressors and sensitizers to ambiguity in a structured free-association task. Psychological Reports, 33, 97–98.
- Kučera, H., & Francis, W. N. (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.
- Lewinsohn, P. M., Berquist, W. H., & Brelje, T. (1972). The repression-sensitization dimension and emotional response to stimuli. Psychological Reports, 31, 707–716.
- MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 15–20.
- Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1986). Discrimination of threat cues without awareness in anxiety state. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 131–138.
- Navon, D., & Margalit, B. (1983). Allocation of attention according to informativeness in visual recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 497–512.
- Seamon, J. G., Marsh, R. L., & Brody, N. (1984). Critical importance of exposure duration for affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 465–469.
- Simpson, G. B. (1984). Lexical ambiguity and its role in models of word recognition. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 316–340.
- Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1977). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Form Y-1. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
- Tempone, V. J. (1962). Extension of the repression-sensitization hypothesis to success and failure experience. Psychological Reports, 15, 39–45.
- Ullmann, L. P. (1962). An empirically derived MMPI scale which measures facilitation-inhibition of recognition of threatening stimuli. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18, 127–132.
- Van Egeren, L. (1968). Repression and sensitization: Sensitivity and recognition criteria. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 3, 1–8.
- Wagstaff, G. F. (1974). The effects of repression-sensitization on a brightness scaling measure of perceptual defence. British Journal of Psychology, 65, 395–401.
- Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465–490.
- Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 92–104.
- Cognitive functioning and anxiety
Volume 49, Issue 2-3 , pp 189-195
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links