Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 118, Issue 3, pp 217–228

Graphitization of carbonaceous matter during metamorphism with references to carbonate and pelitic rocks of contact and regional metamorphisms, Japan

  • Hideki Wada
  • Toshihiro Tomita
  • Kazuhiro Matsuura
  • Keisuke Tuchi
  • Masahiro Ito
  • Toshiro Morikiyo
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00306643

Cite this article as:
Wada, H., Tomita, T., Matsuura, K. et al. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. (1994) 118: 217. doi:10.1007/BF00306643

Abstract

This study is an attempt to correlate the graphitization process of carbonaceous matter during metamorphism with metamorphic grade. Graphitization can be parameterized using crystal structure and chemical and isotopic compositions. The extent of graphitization could be characterized mainly by temperature, duration of metamorphism and rock composition. We compared the graphitization trends for two metamorphic terrains, a contact aureole of the Kasuga area and a regional metamorphic terrain of high-temperature/low pressure type of the Ryoke metamorphic terrain in Northern Kiso area, Central Japan, and for two different lithologies (carbonate and pelite), using X-ray diffractogram, DTA-TG analysis, and chemical and stable isotope analyses. During contact metamorphism, graphitization and carbon isotopic exchange reactions proceeded simultaneously in pelitic and carbonate rocks. The decreases in basal spacing d(002) of the carbonaceous matter in carbonate rocks is greatly accelerated at temperatures higher than about 400° C. Furthermore, carbon isotopic ratios of graphite in carbonate rocks also change to 13C-enriched values implying exchange with carbonates. The beginning of this enrichment of 13C in the carbonaceous matter coincides with an abrupt increase of the graphitization processes. Carbon isotopic shifting up to 5‰ in pelites could be observed as metamorphic temperature increased probably by about 400° C. Carbonaceous matter in pelitic rocks is sometimes a mixture of poorly crystallized organic matter and well-crystallized graphite detritus. DTA-TG analysis is an effective tool for the distinction of detrital graphitic material. Two sources for the original carbon isotopic composition of carbonaceous matter in pelites in the Kasuga contact aureole can be distinguished, about-28‰ and-24‰ regardless of the presence of detrital graphite, and were mainly controlled by depositional environment of the sediments. Graphitization in limestones and pelitic rocks in regional metamorphism proceeds further than in a contact aureole. In the low-temperature range, the differences in extent of graphitization between the two metamorphic regions is large. However, at temperatures higher than 600° C, the extent of graphitization in both regions is indistinguishable. The degree of graphitization is different in limestones and pelitic rocks from the Ryoke metamorphic terrain. We demonstrate that the graphitization involves a progressive re-construction process of the crystal structure. The sequence of the first appearance of crystal inter planar spacing correlates with the metamorphic grade and indicates the crystal growth of three-dimensional structured graphite.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hideki Wada
    • 1
  • Toshihiro Tomita
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Matsuura
    • 1
  • Keisuke Tuchi
    • 1
  • Masahiro Ito
    • 2
  • Toshiro Morikiyo
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Geosciences Faculty of ScienceShizuoka UniversityShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.College of General EducationNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan
  4. 4.NGK Insulators LTD.Mizuho, NagoyaJapan
  5. 5.Hokuriku Ceramic Ware Manuf. LTD.FukuiJapan
  6. 6.Ministry of International Trade and IndustryTokyoJapan