, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 285-288

Central nervous system Strongyloides stercoralis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a report of two cases and review of the literature

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Hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis is rare in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), despite endemicity in areas where infection with human immunodeficiency virus is highly prevalent. We autopsied two patients with AIDS and disseminated Strongyloides and describe their central nervous system findings. The microscopic patterns of brain infection were dissimilar in the two patients, and reflected histology in systemic viscera. In one patient, a granulomatous response accompanied filariform larvae in all locations, including granulomatous ependymitis in brain. Additionally in the brain, larvae without tissue reaction were seen. In the second patient, the absence of tissue response to larvae was body wide, and isolated parasites were found in centrum semiovale. The occurrence of these patients in a region where Strongyloides is not endemic suggests that this infection may be more prevalent in AIDS than formerly suspected.