, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 1-15

Vocal regulation of use of space by groups of titi monkeys Callicebus moloch

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The daily movements and the resulting activity and calling fields are described for three groups of titi monkeys Callicebus moloch. Groups move to the periphery of their home range in the early morning and then call. Playback experiments confirmed that both proximity and location of calling by neighboring animals affect the group's response. Subsequent countercalling often regulates the approach of neighboring groups to a boundary. After encountering adjacent groups, animals return to areas near the home range center. Movements, calling behavior, and the response to neighboring groups all increase the probability of intergroup encounters in the early morning. Encounters define and reinforce the conventional location of boundaries. Boundaries decrease the probability of intergroup encounters at other times and allow exclusive use of space.