Air pollution injury to coastal sage scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains, Southern California
- Walter E. Westman
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
A field survey observed 26 types of foliar damage symptoms on seven species of coastal sage scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area near Los Angeles, California. Of these, 6 symptoms were likely related to herbivory. Forty percent of visual injury symptoms in the field matched symptoms observed on these species exposed for 10 weeks to controlled fumigation with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ppm of O3 and 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 PPM of SO2 or combinations of these. Based on a comparison of field and chamber symptoms, it appeared that both 03 and SO2 were responsible for field injury symptoms, with 03 being the more frequent cause. Symptoms also appeared to be produced at lower concentrations in the field than in chambers. Using the foliar damage symptom present in greatest intensity on a 3-point scale, species were generally found to exhibit increased intensity of this symptom on sites estimated to experience higher levels of 03, SO2 and NO2. Pollution levels at sites were estimated from seven surrounding air quality monitoring stations. One- or two-month-old leaves exhibit sufficient intensity of symptom damage that not all observed injury can be attributed to senescence. Brachyblast leaves of Salvia mellifera exhibited more severe damage symptoms than dolichoblasts, confirming fumigation chamber results; for three other seasonally dimorphic species, brachyblasts were not more sensitive. Fasciated stems were found both in fumigation chambers and in the field on Artemisia californica, Lotus scoparius and Eriogonum fasciculatum, but sample sizes were not sufficient to distinguish among alternative potential causes of this phenomenon.
- Bandel, G. and Gottschalk, W.: 1978, Z. Pflanzenzuecht 81, 60.
- Boke, N. H. and Ross, R. G.: 1978, Amer. J. Bot. 65, 522.
- Burke, G. F.: 1942, Vegetation Types, Works Project Administration Official Project 65-2-08-368.
- California Air Resources Board: 1978–82, California Air Quality Data Summaries, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982. Sacramento, Calif.
- Curry, T. M., Albertsen, M. C., and Palmer, R. G.: 1981, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 88, 3.
- Environmental Protection Agency: 1977, Final EIS/EIR Las Virgenes-Triunfo/Malibu-Topanga Area Wide Facilities Plan. Region IX, San Fransico, Calif.
- Gottschalk, W.: 1977, J. Nucl. Agric. Biol. 6, 27.
- Hirsinger, F. and Roebbelen, G.: 1980, Z. Pflanzenzuecht 85, 275.
- Hoffmann, M. R., Morgan, J. J., Jacob, D. J., Munber, J. W., and Waldman, J. M.: 1983, Characterization of Reactants, Reaction Mechanisms and Products leading to extreme Acid Rain and Acid Aerosol Conditions in Southern California (Final Report, Grant No. AO-141-32, Calif Air Resources Board), Calif Inst. Tech., Pasadena, Calif
- Miller, P. L.: 1973, ‘Oxidant-Induced Community Change in a Mixed Conifer Forest’, in J. A. Naegele (ed.) Air Pollution Damage to Vegetation, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 101–117.
- Naveh, Z., Steinberger, E. H., Chaim, S., and Rotmann, A.: Environ. Conserv. 7, 301.
- Nuno, G. J.: 1980, Vegetation of the Santa Monica Mountains, Map library, University of California, Los Angeles.
- Plantefol, L.: 1974, Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Seances de lAcademie des Sciences, Ser. D. Sciences Naturelles 278, 229.
- Plantefol, L.: 1981, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. III. Sci. Vie 292, 947.
- Plantefol, L.: 1982, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. III. Sci. Vie 294, 985.
- Preston, K. P.: 1980, ‘Effects of Sulfur Dioxide Pollution on Coastal Sage Scrub’. M. A. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.
- Preston, K. P.: 1984, unpublished data.
- Preston, K. P., Weeks, L. B., and Westman, W. E.: 1984, unpublished data.
- Rance, S. J., Cameron, D. M., and Williams, E. R.: 1982, Plant and Soil 65, 293.
- Sandberg, J. S., Basso, M. J., and Okin, B. A.: 1979, Science 203, 82.
- Smith, W. K. and Nobel, P. S.: 1977, Ecology 58, 1003.
- Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H.: 1960, Principles and Procedures of Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
- Unger, C. D.: 1984, California Air Resources Board internal memo, January 18, 1984, cited in Shikiya, M.C. Broadbent, J., Nelson, E., and Taylor, T.: 1984, Acid Deposition in the South Coast Air Basin: An Assessment. South Coast Air Quality Management District, El Monte, Calif.
- U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: 1978, Report on Floods of February and March, 1978, in southern California. Los Angeles, Calif.
- Waldman, J. M., Munger, J. W., Jacob, D. J., Flagan, R. C., Morgan, J. J., and Hoffmann, M. R.: 1982, Science 218, 677.
- Westman, W. E.: 1977, Science 197. 960.
- Westman, W. E.: 1979, Science 205, 1001.
- Westman, W. E.: 1981, Oecologia 51, 385.
- Westman, W. E.: 1983, Vegetatio 52, 3.
- Westman, W. E., Preston, K. P., and Weeks, L. B.: 1985, ‘Sulfur Dioxide Effects on the Growth of Native Plants’, in W. E. Winner, H. A. Mooney, R. Goldstein (eds.), Sulfur Dioxide and Vegetation. Physiology, Ecology, and Policy Issues, Stanford Univ. Press. Stanford, Calif., (in press).
- Williams, W. T., Brady, M., and Willison, S. C.: 1977, J. Air Poll. Control Assoc. 27, 230.
- Winner, W. E.: 1981, ‘The Effect of Sulfur Dioxide on Photosynthesis and Stomatal Behavior of Mediterranean-Climate Shrubs and Trees’, in N. S. Margaris and H. A. Mooney (eds.), Components of Productivity of Mediterranean Regions — Basic and Applied Aspects, Junk, The Hague, pp. 91–103.
- Winner, W. E. and Mooney, H. A.: 1980, Oecologia 44, 296.
- Air pollution injury to coastal sage scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains, Southern California
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Volume 26, Issue 1 , pp 19-41
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Geography, University of California, 90024, Los Angeles, CA, USA