Bone mineral density, sex steroids, and mineral metabolism in premenopausal smokers
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- Ortego-Centeno, N., Muñoz-Torres, M., Hernandez-Quero, J. et al. Calcif Tissue Int (1994) 55: 403. doi:10.1007/BF00298551
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Smoking is related to decreased bone mass and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the harmful effects of smoking on bone have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the repercussions of smoking on bone mass in premenopausal women, and the relationship between these effects and parameters of mineral metabolism and hormone profile. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in 101 premenopausal women (47 smokers, 54 nonsmokers) with dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DeXA) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine. In a subgroup of the sample (16 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) we measured biochemical indicators of mineral metabolism and hormone profile. BMD in the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and the intertrochanter region was significantly lower in smoker (P<0.05) than in nonsmokers. Concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin were higher, and free testosterone index (FTI) was lower (P<0.05) in smokers. We found no significant differences between the groups in parameters of mineral metabolism. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and free testosterone index were directly correlated with values of BMD in different sites. Our findings show that smoking by premenopausal women is associated with decreased BMD and characteristic changes in the hormone profile.