The clinical presentations and radiological features of scoliosis accompanying syringomyelia were analyzed in 14 cases of syringomyelia associated with a Chiari malformation in children. Scoliosis was the initial symptom in 11 out of 16 patients (64%) with syringomyelia and present in 14 (88%) at the initial examination. The scoliosis associated with syringomyelia was characterized by a higher incidence of a single curve (6 cases, 43%) and convexity to the left (7 cases, 50%) than seen in idiopathic scoliosis. The syrinx was shifted to the convex side of scoliosis on the axial section at the middle or lower thoracie level in patients with a single curve, and at the cervical or upper thoracic level in patients with a double curve. The authors think that the scoliosis develops in children as a result of damage done to the anterior horn, which innervates the muscles of the trunk, by an asymmetrically expanded syrinx.