Evaluative expectations and the gender schema: Is failed inconsistency better?
- Arnie Cann
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Are evaluative assessments a part of the information that constitutes the gender stereotype? Two studies tested this question by presenting participants (50 female and 43 male college students, for whom English was their native language) with information that manipulated both the knowledge of gender roles and the evaluative assessments of performance in those roles. Participants tried to learn statements like “Jane is a good nurse” or “John is a bad nurse.” Memory for these relationships was then tested. Results indicated that when the person's name and the role were consistent with the gender stereotype, a positive evaluative connection made the statement easier to recall than a negative evaluative connection. However, an inconsistent name—role pairing was easier to recall when the evaluative connection was negative rather than positive. The results are interpreted as support for an evaluative bias that is part of the knowledge associated with gender differences.
- Albrecht, S. L., Bahr, H. M., & Chadwick, B. A. (1977). Public stereotyping of roles, personality characteristics, and occupations. Sociology and Social Research, 61, 223–240.
- Ashmore, R. D., Del Boca, F. K., & Wohlers, A. J. (1986). Gender stereotypes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.), The social psychology of female—male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
- Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354–364.
- Bielby, W. T., & Baron, J. N. (1984). A woman's place is with other women: Sex segregation in organizations. In B. Reskin (Ed.), Sex segregation in the workplace: Trends, explanations, remedies. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
- Cann, A., & Garnett, A. K. (1984). Sex stereotype impacts on competence ratings by children. Sex Roles, 11, 333–343.
- Cann, A., & Newbern, S. R. (1984). Sex stereotype effects in children's picture recognition. Child Development, 55, 1085–1090.
- Cann, A., & Palmer, S. (1986). Children's assumptions about the generalizability of sex-typed abilities. Sex Roles, 15, 551–558.
- Carter, D. B., & Levy, G. D. (1988). Cognitive aspects of early sex-role development: The influence of gender schemas on preschoolers' memories and preferences for sex-typed toys and activities. Child Development, 59, 782–792.
- Del Boca, F. K., Ashmore, R. D., & McManus, M. A. (1986). Gender-related attitudes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.), The social psychology of female—male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
- Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.
- Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735–754.
- Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23). New York: Academic Press.
- Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Gettys, L. D., & Cann, A. (1981). Children's perceptions of occupational sex stereotypes. Sex Roles, 7, 301–308.
- Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Markus, H., Crane, M., Bernstein, S., & Saladi, M. (1982). Self-schemas and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 38–50.
- Martin, C. L., & Halverson, C. F., Jr. (1981). A schematic-processing model of sex typing and stereotyping in children. Child Development, 52, 1119–1134.
- Panek, P. E., Rush, M. C., & Greenawalt, J. P. (1977). Current stereotypes of 25 occupations. Psychological Reports, 40, 212–214.
- Ruble, D. N., & Stangor, C. (1986). Stalking the elusive schema: Insights from developmental and social-psychological analyses of gender schemas. Social Cognition, 4, 227–261.
- Schneider, D. J. (1991). Social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 527–561.
- Sears, D. O. (1983). The person-positivity bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 233–250.
- Sentis, K. P., & Burnstein, E. (1979). Remembering schema-consistent information: Effects of a balance schema on recognition memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2200–2211.
- Shinar, E. H. (1975). Sexual stereotypes of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7, 99–111.
- Signorella, M. L., & Liben, L. S. (1985). Assessing children's gender-stereotyped attitudes. Psychological Documents, 15, 7. (Ms. No. 2685).
- Stangor, C. (1988). Stereotype accessibility and information processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 694–708.
- Stangor, C., & McMillan, D. (1992). Memory for expectancy-congruent and expectancy-incongruent information: A review of the social and social developmental literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 42–61.
- Stangor, C., & Ruble, D. N. (1989). Strength of expectancies and memory for social information: What we remember depends on how much we know. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 18–35.
- Stoddard, T., & Turiel, E. (1985). Children's concepts of cross-gender activities. Child Development, 56, 1241–1252.
- Swim, J., Borgida, E., Maruyama, G., & Myers, D. G. (1989). Joan McKay versus John McKay: Do gender stereotypes bias evaluations? Psychological Bulletin, 105, 409–429.
- Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing. In E. T. Higgins, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1982). Measuring sex stereotypes: A thirty nation study. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Evaluative expectations and the gender schema: Is failed inconsistency better?
Volume 28, Issue 11-12 , pp 667-678
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Arnie Cann (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 28223, Charlotte, NC