Sex Roles

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 447–464

A typology of personal and environmental sexual harassment: Research and policy implications for the 1990s

  • James E. Gruber

DOI: 10.1007/BF00289868

Cite this article as:
Gruber, J.E. Sex Roles (1992) 26: 447. doi:10.1007/BF00289868


Most of the research conducted on sexual harassment over the last decade and a half has used categories that are neither mutually exclusive nor exhaustive. This has created problems for researchers: it is difficult to compare results from one study to another, harassment types that have scholarly and legal-policy relevance are omitted, and the ability of researchers to inform legal and policy decisions is diminished as a result of these problems. A comprehensive categorization of harassment types that addresses these methodological problems is presented. Specifically, 11 specific types of harassment—4 types of Verbal Requests, 3 Verbal Remarks, and 4 Nonverbal Displays—are presented with examples from research and legal literatures. Recommendations for reconceptualizing research definitions of harassment as well as for diversifying the methodological approaches to the topic are made.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Gruber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Michigan—DearbornUSA

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