Working mothers versus homemakers: Do dreams reflect the changing roles of women?
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
In order to examine potential psychological changes arising from women's new social roles, 15 working and 15 nonworking mothers were asked to report dreams collected within a period of three weeks. In addition, they were administered the Jackson Research Personality Form. Two dreams from each subject were analyzed with selected scales which previous studies had shown to be sensitive to sex differences. On the personality inventory, working mothers were found to have higher social recognition and achievement motives. On the dream content measures, discriminant analyses showed that the two groups could be statistically differentiated on the basis of several scales. In accordance with the notion of continuity between waking and dreaming, working mothers experienced more unpleasant emotions, more male characters, and less residential dreams settings than homemakers. The latter group, surprisingly, had more overt hostility in its dreams. These results suggest that as the trend toward carrying the dual role of wage earner and homemaker is expanding, the gender differences typically observed in dreams content may decrease. They also suggest that the analysis of dream content may prove useful to study the strategies of women adapting to role changes.
- Abbondanza, M., & Dubé-Simard, L. La mère au travail et la mère au foyer: Deux réalités cognitives et évaluatives. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 1982, 3, 3–16.
- Albrecht, S. L., Bahr, H. H., & Chadwick, B. A. Changing family and sex roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1979, 41, 41–51.
- Badinter, E. L'amour en plus. Histoire de l'amour maternel, — XVIIe–XXe siècle, Paris: Flammarion, 1980.
- Bardwick, J. M. In transition: How feminism, sexual liberation, and the search for fulfillment have altered America, New York: Holt, 1979.
- Baruch, R. The achievement motive in women: Implications for career development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 5, 260–267.
- Battistich, V. A., Thompson, E. G., Mann, I. T., & Perlmutter, L. Gender differences in autonomous and social achievement orientations. Journal of Personality, 1982, 50, 98–114.
- Beckman, L. J. The relative rewards and costs of parenthood and employment for employed women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1978, 2, 215–234.
- Beckman, L. J., & Houser, B. B. The more you have the more you do: The relationship between wife's employment, sex-role attitudes and household behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1979, 4, 160–174.
- Bernard, J. S. The future of motherhood, New York: Dial Press, 1974.
- Bernard, J. S. Women, wives, mothers: Values and options, Chicago: Aldine, 1975.
- Bryant, F. B., & Veroff, J. The structure of psychological well-being: A sociohistorical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1982, 43, 653–673.
- Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. Quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluation and satisfaction, New York: Russel Sage, 1976.
- De Koninck, J., & Sallant, F. Essai sur la santé des femmes. In Gouvernement du Québec, Conseil du statut de la femme, Santé mentale et condition des femmes, Chap. 4, pp. 159–179.
- De Koninck, J., & Sirois-Berliss, M. La motivation au rendement dans les rêves et durant l'éveil chez des étudiants canadiens-francais et canadiens-anglais. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1978, 10, 329–338.
- Ericksen, J. A. Yancey, W. L., & Ericksen, E. P. The division of family roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1979, 41, 301–313.
- Frankel, J., Manoque, M. A., & Paludi, M. The employed mother: A new social norm? International Journal of Women's Studies, 1982, 5, 274–281.
- Froggatt, M., & Hunter, L. Pricetag: Canadian women and the stress of success, Toronto: Nelson, 1980.
- Gottschalk, L. A., & Gleser, G. D. The measurement of psychological states through the content analysis of verbal behavior, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.
- Gove, W. R., & Geerken, M. R. The effect of children and employment on the mental health of men and women. Social Forces, 1977, 56, 66–76.
- Gray, J. D. The married professional: An examination of her role conflicts and coping strategies. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1983, 7, 235–243.
- Hall, C. S. The meaning of dreams, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
- Hall, C. S. “A Ubiquitous Sex Difference in Dreams” revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, 46, 1109–1117.
- Hall, C. S., & Van de Castle, R. L. The content analysis of dreams, New York: Appleton, 1966.
- Hall, C. S. Domhoff, G. W., Blick, K. A., & Weesner, K. E. The dreams of college men and women in 1950 and 1980: A comparison of dreams content and sex differences. Sleep, 1982, 5, 188–194.
- Hall, D. T. Pressures from work, self and home in the life stages of married women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1975, 6, 121–132.
- Harris, B. Careers, conflicts and children: The legacy of the cult of domesticity. In A. Roland & B. Harris, (Eds.), Career and motherhood, New York: Human Science Press, 1979.
- Kramer, M., Kinney, L., & Scharf, M. Sex differences in dreams. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 8, 1–4.
- Lipman-Blumen, J. How ideology shapes women's lives. Scientific American, 266, 24–42, 1972.
- Lopata, H. Z. Occupation: Housewife, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.
- Lott, B. E. Who wants the children? Some relationships among attitudes toward children, parents and the liberation of women. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 573–582.
- Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1978, 9, 2–21.
- Pryor, M. G., & Reeves, J. B. Male and female patterns of work opportunity, structure and life satisfaction. International Journal of Women's Studies, 1982, 5, 215–226.
- Rich, A. Of woman born: Motherhood as experience and institution, New York: Norton, 1976.
- Rossi, A. S. Barriers to the career choice of engineering, medicine or science among American women. In J. A. Mattfield & C. G. Van Aken (Eds.), Women and the scientific professons, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965.
- Sirois-Berliss, M., & De Koninck, J. Menstrual stress and dreams: Adaptation or interference? Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 1982, 7, 77–86.
- Stake, J. E., & Levitz, E. Career goals of college women and men and perceived achievement-related encouragement. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1979, 4, 151–159.
- Stein, A. H., & Bailey, M. M. The socialization of achievement motivation in females. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 345–366.
- Stewart, A. Personality and situation in the prediction of women's life patterns. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1980, 5, 195–206.
- Trofimenkoff, S. M. The dream of nation: A social and intellectual history of Québec, Toronto: Macmillan, 1982.
- Urbina, S. P., & Grey, A. Cultural and sex differences in the sex distribution of dream characters. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1975, 6, 358–364.
- Van de Castle, R. L. The use of dreams to investigate psychological aspects of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. American Psychologist, 1967, 22, 588.
- Van de Castle, R. L., & Kinder, P. Dream content during pregnancy. Psychophysiology, 1968, 4, 375 (APSS Abstr.).
- Veroff, J. Process vs. impact in men's and women's achievement motivation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1977, 1, 283–293.
- Veroff, J., & Feld, S. Marriage and work in America: A study of motives and roles, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970.
- Winget, C., Kramer, M., & Whitman, R. Dreams and demography. Canadian Psychiatry Association Journal, 1972, 17, 203–208.
- Yogev, S. Judging the professional woman: Changing research, changing values. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1983, 7, 219–234.
- Working mothers versus homemakers: Do dreams reflect the changing roles of women?
Volume 12, Issue 9-10 , pp 1009-1021
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors