Tutorial Review

Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 335-352

First online:

Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

  • W. NakwaskiAffiliated withCenter for High Technology Materials, University of New MexicoInstitute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, ul.

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Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are reviewed and discussed. The effects of temperature on VCSEL operation characteristics are considered, including the temperature dependence of their longitudinal mode spectra, their threshold current, and their transverse-mode structure. The principles of operation of ‘temperature-insensitive’ VCSELs are explained.

A comparison between the behaviour of VCSELs and that of conventional edgeemitting lasers is emphasized.