Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 335–352

Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

  • W. Nakwaski
Tutorial Review

DOI: 10.1007/BF00287023

Cite this article as:
Nakwaski, W. Opt Quant Electron (1996) 28: 335. doi:10.1007/BF00287023


Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are reviewed and discussed. The effects of temperature on VCSEL operation characteristics are considered, including the temperature dependence of their longitudinal mode spectra, their threshold current, and their transverse-mode structure. The principles of operation of ‘temperature-insensitive’ VCSELs are explained.

A comparison between the behaviour of VCSELs and that of conventional edgeemitting lasers is emphasized.

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Nakwaski
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for High Technology MaterialsUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Institute of PhysicsTechnical University of Lodz, ul.LodzPoland

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