, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 335-352

Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

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Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are reviewed and discussed. The effects of temperature on VCSEL operation characteristics are considered, including the temperature dependence of their longitudinal mode spectra, their threshold current, and their transverse-mode structure. The principles of operation of ‘temperature-insensitive’ VCSELs are explained.

A comparison between the behaviour of VCSELs and that of conventional edgeemitting lasers is emphasized.