, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 565–573

New developments in the incretin concept

  • W. Creutzfeldt
  • R. Ebert

DOI: 10.1007/BF00281990

Cite this article as:
Creutzfeldt, W. & Ebert, R. Diabetologia (1985) 28: 565. doi:10.1007/BF00281990


Experimental and clinical work over the last 6 years has confirmed and broadened, but also challenged, the incretin concept. The nervous component of the entero-insular axis is still poorly defined, especially the peptidergic nerves, of which several contain insulinotropic regulatory peptides. The incretin effect is preserved after complete denervation of the porcine pancreas. Type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetic patients have a significantly decreased incretin effect. GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide; glucose dependent insulin releasing peptide) remains the strongest incretin factor. Its secretion depends on the absorption of nutrients. However, the correlation between the GIP response and disturbances of the entero-insular axis in some gastrointestinal diseases and, in particular, Type 2 diabetes, is poor. Furthermore, physiological concentrations of exogenous GIP do not produce fully the incretin effect and injection of GIP antibodies does not abolish the incretin effect. This suggests the existence of additional humoral incretin factors. On the other hand, GIP seems to have direct metabolic effects independent of its insulinotropic activity. The incretin effect of oral glucose is smaller if plasma levels of C-peptide rather than insulin are measured. However, decreased hepatic extraction of insulin after glucose ingestion only accounts partially for the incretin effect. GIP is unlikely to be the gut factor which regulates hepatic insulin extraction.

Key words

Incretin entero-insular axis insulinotropic factors GIP hepatic insulin extraction pancreatic denervation Type 2 diabetes experimental diabetes 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Creutzfeldt
    • 1
  • R. Ebert
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Department of MedicineUniversity of GöttingenFRG

Personalised recommendations