Citric acid was produced using Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam in a bubble column reactor. Most of the adsorbed cells remained on the support and, as a result, high oxygen tension was maintained during the reactor operation. However, uncontrolled growth of the pellets made continuous reactor operation difficult. The citric acid productivity obtained from 15 vol.% foam particles containing immobilized cells was 0.135 g/l per hour. This productivity of immobilized cells was almost the same as that of free cells. The oxygen level dropped to half saturation in 5 days in the immobilized cell culture in contrast to 2 days in the free cell culture.