Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions
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- Kondo, J. Boundary-Layer Meteorol (1975) 9: 91. doi:10.1007/BF00232256
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On the basis of recent data for the roughness Reynolds number of the sea surface, and using the Owen-Thomson theory on the transfers of heat and mass between a rough surface and the flow above it, the bulk transfer coefficients of the sea surface have been estimated. For a reference height of 10 m, the neutral-lapse transfer coefficient for water vapor is larger by only a few percent than that for sensible heat. When the wind speed at the 10-m height is u10>3 m s−1, the coefficient for sensible heat CH is larger by about 10% than that for momentum CD. For u10<5 m s−1, however, the value of CD exceeds the value of CH, and for u10=15 m s−1 it is shown that CH≈0.8CD. It may be also proposed that 103CD=1.11 to 1.70, 103CE=1.18 to 1.30, and 103CH=1.15 to 1.26 for a range of u10=4 to 20 m s−1. A plot of diabatic transfer coefficients versus wind speed is obtained by using a parameter of the sea-air temperature difference. For practical purposes, the coefficients are approximated by empirical formulae.