Particulate dispersion from sources within a forest
- Cite this article as:
- Raynor, G.S., Hayes, J.V. & Ogden, E.C. Boundary-Layer Meteorol (1975) 9: 257. doi:10.1007/BF00230770
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Particulate dispersion from sources within a 10- to 13-m tall pine forest was studied experimentally at Brookhaven National Laboratory using stained ragweed pollen and other tracers ranging from 14 to 58 Μm in size. Forty-seven continuous point source releases lasting from 22 to 55 min were made at heights from 1.75 to 14.0 m from locations having a long fetch through the forest. In most experiments, differently colored ragweed pollen were emitted simultaneously from three locations. In other tests, several particle types were released from a single point. The sampling network consisted of 119 rotoslide samplers at heights from 0.5 to 21.0 m at 57 positions within and at the edge of the forest. Deposition to the ground was sampled by greased microscope slides at each position. Meteorological measurements were taken in and near the forest.
Data were classified by particle characteristics, source height and meteorological parameters. Concentration patterns were illustrated on scale diagrams of the sampling grid. Changes in centerline and crosswind integrated concentrations, plume width and height, mass flux, deposition and deposition velocity were studied as a function of distance, particle size and wind speed. Results were compared to those obtained from similar releases over open terrain.
In the forest, vertical predominates over lateral dispersion and considerable interchange occurs through the canopy. Flow is channelled somewhat by vegetation density differences but is generally in the direction of the mean wind above the forest. No systematic turning of the wind with height was observed. Most particles are lost to the foliage rather than to the ground and large particles are lost more rapidly than smaller ones. Rate of change in mass flux is similar to that over open terrain and is greater with light than with stronger wind speeds.