, Volume 117, Issue 2, pp 107-118

Incorporation and metabolic conversion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in SK-Hep1 human hepatoma cells in culture

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Abstract

We report here a study of the incorporation and metabolism of various long chain fatty acids in SK-Hep-1 cultured hepatoma cells. Medium supplementation with radiolabelled palmitic, stearic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosa-8, 11,14-trienoic acids (1 µM, 24 H) resulted in an active uptake of each of these precursors by the cultures. Subsequent analysis of the cellular lipids indicated that they exhibit almost all the enzymic activities of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism that are characteristic of normal hepatic cells. With respect to the desaturation capacities of this cell line, although α-linolenic acid reacted more extensively than did linoleic acid and the conversion of 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid by the Δ 5 specific enzyme was more avid than had been previously seen in normal rat or human liver: the saturated fatty acids constituted relatively poor substrates, being preferentially chain-elongated rather than (mono) desaturated at the Δ 9 position. Analysis of the fatty acid profiles of total cellular lipids and of various lipid subclasses, however, revealed a relative paucity of essential fatty acids when compared with the abundance of endogenous monoenoic acids (particularly oleic). Of the total cellular fatty acids, 58% were present in the form of phospholipids; with 33% of the remaining 42% (i.e., the neutral lipids) being associated with triacylglycerol fraction. Within the total lipids, phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine were the major sites for the incorporation of all metabolic products derived from the incubated radiolabelled 16- and 18-carbon fatty acid precursors, whereas the phosphatidyl-inositol fraction was the predominat recipient of nascent arachidonic acid when the eicosatrienoate was the substrate. The express purpose of this investigation was to characterize the biochemical routes involved in the anabolism of various essential fatty acids in the human hepatocyte, through the use of cultured human hepatoma cells as an experimental model system. In view of the similarities between certain aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism of these cells and the corresponding properties of other mammalian hepatic or liver-derived tissues, the data presented here would thus constitute a significant beginning alone those lines. Moreover, considering the extreme difficulty in obtaining for such investigation relevant tissue samples from normal human sources, we regard these results — and the availability for use of this particular human hepatoma cell line — as important new developments in the effort to characterize a useful experimental model both for gaining immediate information and for designing future experiments.