Chromosome substitutions of Triticum timopheevii in common wheat and some observations on the evolution of polyploid wheat species
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- Brown-Guedira, G.L., Badaeva, E.D., Gill, B.S. et al. Theoret. Appl. Genetics (1996) 93: 1291. doi:10.1007/BF00223462
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Whether the two tetraploid wheat species, the well known Triticum turgidum L. (macaroni wheat, AABB genomes) and the obscure T. timopheevii Zhuk. (AtAtGG), have monophyletic or diphyletic origin from the same or different diploid species presents an interesting evolutionary problem. Moreover, T. timopheevii and its wild form T. araraticum are an important genetic resource for macaroni and bread-wheat improvement. To study these objectives, the substitution and genetic compensation abilities of individual T. timopheevii chromosomes for missing chromosomes of T. aestivum ‘Chinese Spring’ (AABBDD) were analyzed. ‘Chinese Spring’ aneuploids (nullisomic-tetrasomics) were crossed with a T. timopheevii x Aegilops tauschii amphiploid to isolate T. timopheevii chromosomes in a monosomic condition. The F1 hybrids were backcrossed one to four times to Chinese Spring aneuploids without selection for the T. timopheevii chromosome of interest. While spontaneous substitutions involving all At- and G-genome chromosomes were identified, the targeted T. timopheevii chromosome was not always recovered. Lines with spontaneous substitutions from T. timopheevii were chosen for further backcrossing. Six T. timopheevii chromosome substitutions were isolated: 6At (6A), 2G (2B), 3G (3B), 4G (4B), 5G (5B) and 6G (6B). The substitution lines had normal morphology and fertility. The 6At of T. timopheevii was involved in a translocation with chromosome 1G, resulting in the transfer of the group-1 gliadin locus to 6At. Chromosome 2G substituted for 2B at a frequency higher than expected and may carry putative homoeoalleles of gametocidal genes present on group-2 chromosomes of several alien species. Our data indicate a common origin for tetraploid wheat species, but from separate hybridization events because of the presence of a different spectrum of intergenomic translocations.