Space Science Reviews

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 23–78

Galileo trajectory design

  • Louis A. D'Amario
  • Larry E. Bright
  • Aron A. Wolf
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00216849

Cite this article as:
D'Amario, L.A., Bright, L.E. & Wolf, A.A. Space Sci Rev (1992) 60: 23. doi:10.1007/BF00216849

Abstract

The Galileo spacecraft was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on October 18, 1989. A two-stage Inertial Upper Stage propelled Galileo out of Earth parking orbit to begin its 6-year interplanetary transfer to Jupiter. Galileo has already received two gravity assists: from Venus on February 10, 1990 and from Earth on December 8, 1990. After a second gravity-assist flyby of Earth on December 8, 1992, Galileo will have achieved the energy necessary to reach Jupiter. Galileo's interplanetary trajectory includes a close flyby of asteroid 951-Gaspra on October 29, 1991, and, depending on propellant availability and other factors, there may be a second asteroid flyby of 243-Ida on August 28, 1993. Upon arrival at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, the Galileo Orbiter will relay data back to Earth from an atmospheric Probe which is released five months earlier. For about 75 min, data is transmitted to the Orbiter from the Probe as it descends on a parachute to a pressure depth of 20–30 bars in the Jovian atmosphere. Shortly after the end of Probe relay, the Orbiter ignites its rocket motor to insert into orbit about Jupiter. The orbital phase of the mission, referred to as the satellite tour, lasts nearly two years, during which time Galileo will complete 10 orbits about Jupiter. On each of these orbits, there will be a close encounter with one of the three outermost Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto). The gravity assist from each satellite is designed to target the spacecraft to the next encounter with minimal expenditure of propellant. The nominal mission is scheduled to end in October 1997 when the Orbiter enters Jupiter's magnetotail.

List of Acronyms

ASI

Atmospheric Structure Instrument

EPI

Energetic Particles Instrument

HGA

High Gain Antenna

IUS

Inertial Upper Stage

JOI

Jupiter Orbit Insertion

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LRD

Lightning and Radio Emissions Detector

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NEP

Nephelometer

NIMS

Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

ODM

Orbit Deflection Maneuver

OTM

Orbit Trim Maneuver

PJR

Perijove Raise Maneuver

PM

Propellant Margin

PDT

Pacific Daylight Time

PST

Pacific Standard Time

RPM

Retropropulsion Module

RRA

Radio Relay Antenna

SSI

Solid State Imaging

TCM

Trajectory Correction Maneuver

UTC

Universal Time Coordinated

UVS

Ultraviolet Spectrometer

VEEGA

Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis A. D'Amario
    • 1
  • Larry E. Bright
    • 1
  • Aron A. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA